Establishing inclusive governance

Published: 22 November 2018
Last edited: 11 February 2019

What institutions and policies are needed to foster inclusive green growth? This was the first and most critical question addressed by partners. Together, they assessed natural resources governance in Kilombero using a framework established by IUCN. They used a rights-based approach to improve social and economic inclusion in the district focussing on villages in lower Mngeta.


Village land use plans (VLUPs) are seen as key to addressing competing resource interests and resolving conflicts. However, many of the same factors making VLUPs important, such as high biodiversity value, scarce land, power imbalances, competing interests and accountability concerns, also make it challenging to ensure they are developed and implemented fairly. There appears to be very little landscape level or inter-village planning, including within the recently completed Kilombero District Land Use Framework.


Legal and policy frameworks, policy advocacy
Scale of implementation

Enabling factors

The company, KPL, showed an interest in sourcing more of its rice and milling services from local smallholders and was keen to encourage sustainable practices.


Creating water user associations and catchment management committees involving villages is  helping them to own the governance of water use. One example is that local people have been trained to use a monitoring tool, Mini Stream Assessment Scoring System (miniSASS), to help gauge and report on the health of the Mchombe River.

Lessons learned

The SAGCOT initiative -- to catalyze responsible and inclusive agricultural investments in this southern corridor -- may exacerbate several challenges, including conflict over land if it does not explicitly address rights and equity issues.


Social and environmental assessments and experience with existing farmer schemes in Kilombero highlight substantial risks to the rights and interests of the most vulnerable, including women, pastoralists, and smallholders.


There is a clear need to strengthen capacity to improve governance and incorporate a rights-based approach through continual staff training within the partner organisations.

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