Integrated livestock and wildlife disease surveillance and response supports Saiga conservation and livelihoods in Mongolia

WCS Mongolia
Publicado: 21 Junio 2022
Última edición: 08 Julio 2022
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Summary

Integrated livestock and wildlife monitoring, surveillance, and response are essential to guide the implementation of disease control measures to protect biodiversity and livelihoods. Improved wildlife surveillance and  analyses of disease outbreaks in Mongolia showed that wildlife were victims of livestock disease spillover, not the source of the outbreaks as had been previously thought. This avoided mass culling of wildlife and moved towards wildlife-friendly disease control efforts. Strategies for both livestock and wildlife are now being designed to control and eradicate Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) virus in Mongolia. The incorporation of wildlife is now recognized as essential in global PPR eradication strategies. With saiga sensitivity to disease epidemics more fully appreciated, increased trade protections through the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) were implemented, which will further help safeguard the Mongolian saiga’s survival.

Classifications

Region
Asia Central y del Norte
Scale of implementation
Global
Local
Multinacional
Nacional
Subnacional
Ecosystem
Agro-ecosistema
Desierto frío
Ecosistemas de pastizales
Ecosistemas del desierto
Pastizales templados, sabana, matorral
Pasto
Theme
Acceso y participación en los beneficios
Agricultura
Ciencia y investigación
Comunicación y divulgación
Cultura
Especies y la extinción
Gestión de tierras
Gestión y planificación de áreas protegidas y conservadas
Gobernanza de las áreas protegidas y conservadas
Medios de vida sostenibles
Seguridad alimentaria
Species Conservation and One Health Interventions
Evaluación del estado de las especies
Vigilancia de la salud de la vida silvestre (para capturar la vigilancia de la biodiversidad, la salud, las enfermedades y los patógenos)
Vacunas
Seguimiento e investigación de especies
Planificación de la conservación de especies
Comunicación de riesgos, participación de la comunidad y cambio de comportamiento
Evaluación de riesgos
Investigación de brotes y acceso al laboratorio
Mecanismo de coordinación de One Health
One Health
Sanidad animal
El vínculo entre biodiversidad y salud
Sistemas alimentarios
Buena gobernanza territorial
Comercio de fauna y flora silvestre y conflictos entre el hombre y la fauna
Challenges
Usos conflictivos / impactos acumulativos
Gestión ineficaz de los recursos financieros
Falta de seguridad alimentaria
Falta de infraestructura
Falta de conciencia del público y de los responsables de la toma de decisiones
Falta de capacidad técnica
Sustainable development goals
ODS 1 - Fin de la pobreza
ODS 2 - Hambre cero
ODS 3 - Salud y bienestar
ODS 11 - Ciudades y comunidades sostenibles
ODS 12 - Producción y consumo responsables
ODS 15 - Vida de ecosistemas terrestres
ODS 17 - Alianzas para lograr los objetivos
Aichi targets
Meta 1: Aumento de la sensibilization sobre la biodiversidad
Meta 2: Valores de biodiversidad integrados
Meta 3: Incentivos reformados
Meta 4: Producción y consumo sostenibles
Meta 7: Agricultura, acuicultura y silvicultura
Meta 12: Reducir el riesgo de extinción
Meta 13: Protección de la diversidad genética
Meta 14: Los servicios ecosistemicos
Meta 17: Estrategias y planes de acción para la biodiversidad
Meta 19: Intercambio de información y conocimiento
Meta 20: Movilización de recursos de todas las fuentes
Sendai Framework
Meta 2: Reducir el número de personas afectadas a nivel global para 2030
Meta 3: Reducir las pérdidas económicas directas por desastre en relación al PIB para 2030
Meta 6: Incrementar la cooperación hacia países en desarrollo a través de apoyo adecuado y sustentable a fin de complementar sus acciones
Meta 7: Incrementar la disponibilidad de, y el acceso a un sistema de alerta temprana para múltiples peligros y a información y evaluaciones sobre riesgos de desastre para la población al 2030.

Ubicación

Mongolia

Challenges

This solution addresses challenges to biodiversity conservation of saiga and other wild ungulates, as well as the wild carnivores that prey and rely on these animals as their food source. Improved surveillance and understanding of disease epidemiology leads to more appropriate interventions for disease control which addresses challenges to livestock health, with knock-on benefits to the livelihoods and economic security of the herders whose animals share the steppe environment with wild ungulates.

Beneficiaries

  • Herding communities who rely on livestock for their economic stability and livelihoods
  • Wild ungulates
  • Wild carnivores who rely on wild ungulates for food
  • All who rely on the integrity of the Mongolian steppe ecosystem

¿ Cómo interactúan los building blocks en la solución?

Developing multi-sectoral communication and collaboration networks and capacity building across these sectors from local to national levels are essential components for successful wildlife surveillance for One Health intelligence and implementation of effective solutions in coordination with local communities. 

Impacts

In the past, the role of wildlife in livestock disease outbreaks was misunderstood. During Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) outbreaks in 2000, Mongolian gazelle were viewed as reservoirs of the disease and subjected to mass culling. Temporal and spatial analyses supported by international wildlife health experts showed that gazelle were in fact the victims of spillover of the virus from livestock improving veterinary officials' understanding of the epidemiology of FMD. Mass destruction of wildlife was recognized as an ineffective control measure, and conservation-friendly management actions adopted. In 2016, PPR was diagnosed in domestic livestock, spread to wild ungulates, and killed over 80% of Mongolian Saiga. Wildlife surveillance identified that wildlife were victims and not the original source of infection. Instead of culling wildlife, expert advisors, environmental and veterinary sectors coordinated to vaccinate livestock and minimize spread of PPR, saving the critically endangered Mongolian Saiga population, which subsequently rebounded to 8,500 individuals.

The realization of the importance of wildlife and their ecological role in preserving the steppes is a great change in the veterinary sector. Partners are now working to design effective control strategies for both livestock and wildlife to eradicate PPR in Mongolia, and to incorporate wildlife into global PPR eradication strategies.

Contribuido por

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Lucy Keatts WCS