Applying a multi-faceted approach to achieve long-term sustainable conservation goals in a programme for the reintroduction of Critically Endangered western lowland gorillas to a protected area within the Republic of Congo

The Aspinall Foundation
Publié: 01 novembre 2021
Dernière modification: 01 novembre 2021
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Résumé

The Gorilla Protection Project began in 1987 with the aim of reintroducing Critically Endangered western lowland gorillas to an area they had been hunted to extinction. Young gorillas, orphaned by the illegal bush meat trade, receive care and rehabilitation at the project before release back to the wild. Also captive-bred gorillas are repatriated to Congo where, after a period of adjustment, they too are released into the reserve. The protection afforded to the area also allows a wider range of flora and fauna to benefit, improving the biodiversity and health of the eco-system. Yet the anthropogenic pressures remain. To achieve sustainable conservation results the project seeks to achieve a holistic solution by adopting a multi-faceted approach to a complex problem. This involves conservation initiatives that include local community development in the villages surrounding the reserve alongside enforcement and protection against unauthorised activities for the wildlife and habitat of the protected area.

Classifications

Région
Afrique occidentale et centrale
Échelle de la mise en œuvre
Local
Ecosystème
Forêt de feuillus tropicaux
Piscine, lac, étang
Prairie tropicale, savane, maquis
Rivière, ruisseau
Écosystèmes d'eau douce
Écosystèmes forestiers
Écosystémes des prairies
Thème
Accès et partage des avantages
Acteurs locaux
Braconnage et la criminalité environnementale
Connaissances traditionnelles
Diversité génétique
Fragmentation et la dégradtion de l'habitat
Gestion de feu
Gestion des espèces
Gestion des terres
Gestion et Planification des Aires protégées et conservées
L'intégration de la biodiversité
Moyens d'existence durables
Planification spatiale terrestre
Prévention de l'érosion
Restauration
Science et recherche
Services écosystèmiques
Tourisme
Species Conservation and One Health Interventions
Conservation génétique
Évaluation du statut de l'espèce
Surveillance des espèces et recherche
Translocations pour la conservation des espèces
Planification de la conservation des espèces
Communication des risques, engagement communautaire et changement de comportement
Évaluation des risques
Défis
Sécheresse
Précipitations erratiques
Dégradation des terres et des forêts
Perte de biodiversité
Utilisations conflictuelles / impacts cumulatifs
Érosion
Perte de l'écosystème
Braconnage
Récolte non durable, y compris la surpêche
Gestion inefficace des ressources financières
Manque d'accès au financement à long terme
Manque d'autres possibilités de revenu
Extraction de ressources matérielles
Manque de sensibilisation du public et des décideurs
Mauvaise surveillance et application de la loi
Manque de sécurité alimentaire
Chômage / pauvreté
Objectifs de Développement Durable
ODD 1 - Pas de pauvreté
ODD 2 - Faim "zéro"
ODD 5 - Égalité entre les sexes
ODD 12 - Consommation et production responsables
ODD 15 - Vie terrestre
ODD 17 - Partenariats pour la réalisation des objectifs
Obectifs d'Aichi
Objectif 1: Sensibilisation accrue de la biodiversité
Objectif 4: Production et consommation durables
Objectif 5: Perte d'habitat réduite de moitié ou diminuée
Objectif 6: Gestion durable des ressources vivantes aquatiques
Objectif 7: Agriculture, aquaculture et sylviculture durable
Objectif 8: Pollution réduite
Objectif 11: Aires protégées et conservées
Objectif 12: Réduction du risque d'extinction
Objectif 14: Services des écosystèmes
Objectif 15: Restauration et la résilience des écosystèmes
Objectif 18: Connaissances traditionnelles
Cadre d'action de Sendai
2: Réduire nettement, d’ici à 2030, le nombre de personnes touchées par des catastrophes.
Soumission de (I)NDC

Emplacement

Lésio-Louna Reserve, Batéke Plateau, Republic of Congo.

Défis

The release of rehabilitated or captive-bred animals back to the wild requires a multi-year commitment with an ability to adapt processes and procedures where necessary.

Civil wars and militia conflicts have plagued the Republic of Congo for many years, and even during periods of relative stability projects must be managed with a degree of sensitivity in this regard.

The people living in the villages surrounding the reserve are trapped in a subsistence lifestyle by poverty and the lack of opportunities in rural areas. This in turn leads to pressure on wildlife from practices such as poaching, fishing, and habitat loss/degradation. There is also an historical lack of economic and social empowerment, particularly affecting the younger generation and women. The resulting cycle of over-exploitation of natural resources can only be broken by tackling the complexities of the problem with multiple solutions requiring a cohesive and sustained programme of conservation and community development.

Bénéficiaires

The main beneficiaries of the project are the local communities living in the 23 villages along the park boundaries (population in excess of 17,000) and, in a broader context, the government of the Republic of Congo.

Comment les blocs constitutifs interagissent-ils entre eux dans la solution?

The interaction of the building blocks follows a natural progression from early preparation and planning through to implementation and the future. Certain elements run throughout the building blocks, including collaboration, and good communication. Each block is not necessarily dependent on the others, but together they form a far more cohesive approach to addressing the complex situations that face most conservation projects. Following a logical pathway that brings together multiple aspects, particularly in areas involving human/wildlife conflict to any degree, provides a far better opportunity to achieve sustainable solutions.

Les impacts positifs

The project's approach has led to a natural expansion of its scope. At its core there remains the initial focus of the reintroduction and protection of the western lowland gorilla population, but its impact has expanded beyond a single species. The health of the eco-system as a whole is integral to the project, and the complex inter-relationships between humans, wildlife and habitat are key elements. As with many of the remaining wilderness areas, the villages surrounding Lésio-Louna Reserve are some of the poorest in the country and they are highly dependent on the natural resources around them. Environmental and social resilience is achieved by empowering the local communities to transition from subsistence to sustainable lifestyles.

Since the inception of the project there is now a self-supporting population of wild gorillas in the reserve and other species, including hippos and forest buffalo, have increased in number. Through training, raising awareness, and building new income streams that encourage a desire to protect wildlife and habitats, local communities have gained new skills and a better understanding of the importance of sustainability. In addition to contributing to a number of SDGs this continued development will ultimately enable local people to become the custodians of their environment.

Histoire

The Aspinall Foundation

In November 2020, thanks to the support we received from the European Union and the Organisation of African, Caribbean and Pacific States through the BIOPAMA Programme, we were able to significantly enhance our work in the Lésio-Louna Reserve. The aim was to improve the protection & management of the reserve through increased monitoring against illegal activities combined with the development of an existing eco-tourism product. It is an example of combining multiple approaches to achieve a single result, that being to protect the habitat and wildlife of the Lésio-Louna Reserve whilst remaining sensitive to the needs of local people. The purchase of a 4 x 4 vehicle and additional camera traps has allowed our team to organise regular patrols, and monitor activity, across a much wider area of the reserve than would be possible on foot. Combined with the use of SMART technology we are now gaining a better understanding of unauthorised activities that are occurring in the remote areas of the reserve and have been able to take action by destroying hunting camps, and confiscating items such as rafts/canoes, and hunting rifles. The presence of the patrols is also beginning to act as a deterrent through the awareness raising activities of our team. Alongside this strengthening of the rules and regulations we have also upgraded elements of an eco-tourism product through the installation of a new solar energy system and by increasing the capacity to offer river excursions. The creation of the eco-tourism product is an opportunity to involve local people through direct employment. As it becomes established and visitor numbers increase it also provides an income stream for residents of all 23 villages surrounding the reserve as a proportion of the revenue from eco-tourism is paid to the village associations for the benefit of the local people.

Contribué par

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Sandra Rowland The Aspinall Foundation

Soumise par

Berthin Mbangui - Project Manager
The Aspinall Foundation - Congo
Amos Courage - Director of Overseas Projects
The Aspinall Foundation