Blue carbon credits financing community-based mangrove management

Mikoko Pamoja
Publié: 20 octobre 2015
Dernière modification: 07 novembre 2022
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This is the first community-run project of its kind in the world: Mikoko Pamoja promotes the restoration and protection of mangrove forests for local community benefit. It is validated by Plan Vivo to generate and sell mangrove carbon credits to companies and individuals, who would like to improve their green credentials. The revenue generated from the trading of carbon credits flows into a community benefit fund, which is managed by the community-led Mikoko Pamoja steering group. The fund supports local development projects in education, water and sanitation, and mangrove reforestation.


Afrique de l'Est et du Sud
Scale of implementation
Écosystèmes marins et côtiers
Acteurs locaux
Adaptation au changement climatique
Atténuation du changement climatique
Financement durable
Fragmentation et la dégradtion de l'habitat
Science et recherche
Sensibilisation et communications
Dégradation des terres et des forêts
Perte de biodiversité
Perte de l'écosystème
Extraction de ressources matérielles
Changements dans le contexte socio-culturel
Manque de sensibilisation du public et des décideurs
Sustainable development goals
ODD 13 - Mesures relatives à la lutte contre les changements climatiques
ODD 14 - Vie aquatique
Aichi targets
Objectif 5: Perte d'habitat réduite de moitié ou diminuée
Objectif 10: Ecosystèmes vulnérables au changement climatique
Objectif 14: Services des écosystèmes
Objectif 15: Restauration et la résilience des écosystèmes
Objectif 20: Mobiliser toutes les ressources disponibles


Gazi Beach, Kenya


  • Exploitation of mangroves for their wood and other products
  • Losses of mangroves have negative effects on fisheries, resource sustainability and ecosystem integrity
  • Degradation of mangroves leads to increased emissions of green house gases


  • The local community at Gazi Bay
  • The Mikoko Pamoja Community Organization (MPCO)
  • The Kenya Forest Service (KFS)

Comment les blocs constitutifs interagissent-ils entre eux dans la solution?

Due to the high emissions from the forest sector, the UNFCCC developed carbon conservation incentive schemes to enable financial compensations for good forest management. For communities in Kenya to earn funds through carbon projects, necessary legislation has to be in place. The Forest Act (2005) enabled the formation of Community Forest Association (CFA) at Gazi Bay, which was followed by the signing of a forest management agreement between Kenya Forest Service (KFS) and the community. The management agreement stipulates the allocable community activities in the forests and enabled the Mikoko Pamoja Community Organization (MPCO) to engage in the sale of carbon credits. The agreement provided an ownership of a designated area of mangroves of Gazi Bay to MPCO (approx. 117 ha) in which various project activities, including community education and awareness programs, are carried out. The collaboration with the Kenya Marine and Fisheries Research Institute (KMFRI) provided the necessary technical know-how needed for the carbon assessments and development of reference emission levels.


Through Mikoko Pamoja, the community has a powerful mechanism to generate revenue, which is benefiting community projects in health, education and mangrove management. Restoration efforts of lost mangrove areas increase the amount of carbon that can be stored and together with the enhanced restoration and protection of mangroves a total emission reduction of 50,000t CO2 is expected over the next 20 years crediting period. In addition, healthy mangroves are nursery grounds for fish, ensure shoreline protection and support sediment stabilization. As the project has a strong ownership by the local community it also leads to improved education standards and enhanced awareness for the importance of healthy mangroves among the community. The success of Mikoko Pamoja is being replicated in Kenya’s south coast at Vanga and across the Western Indian Ocean countries in Madagascar, Tanzania and Mozambique.


Mikoko Pamoja is all about the community living in harmony with a natural mangrove environment. It is the first ever community-type forest to trade and benefit from sales of mangrove carbon credits. Some of the poorest people on earth rely on the mangrove forests that fringe the Kenyan coast. Bridging the sea and land, mangrove trees provide storm protection, feeding grounds and nurseries for fish, as well as harvestable wood products, such as firewood. And mangroves offer another service to the globe: even more than terrestrial forests, they fight climate change by sucking carbon out of the air and storing it safely underground. The capacity of mangrove to capture and store carbon has been estimated at 3-5 times higher than any productive terrestrial forest. However, 30–50 per cent of all mangroves globally have been cut down or burnt in the past half-century, placing them among the earth’s most threatened ecosystems. Considering the value of these coastal forests, their continuing destruction is one of the world’s great market failures. Centered in southern Kenya’s Gazi Bay, researchers have explored new ways to demonstrate the mangroves’ worth and tap their carbon storage potential to benefit poor coastal communities. Earlier work in Gazi Bay, led by James Kairo of the Kenya Marine and Fisheries Research Institute and Mark Huxham of Edinburgh Napier University, demonstrated how to restore cleared mangrove stands — even in areas where salty stumps have stood lifeless for 40 years. Now, the team is collaborating with an international ‘carbon credit’ scheme to sell the carbon storage created through mangrove reforestation and conservation. Small, community based projects — in Kenya and worldwide — could fit into the UN’s programme for reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD). Researchers and Kenyan forest managers are discussing steps to turn vulnerable mangroves into profitable REDD sites. Using lessons from Gazi Bay, many more communities could reap increasing value from healthy coastal forests. The success of Mikoko Pamoja is being replicated in other parts of Kenyas coast and the Western Indian Ocean region.

Contribué par

Portrait de

Salim Abdalla Mikoko Pamoja Community Organization

Other contributors

Mikoko Pamoja Community Organization
Kenya Marine and Fisheries Research Institute