Implementation of Integrated Coastal and Marine Spatial Planning of Bontang

Full Solution
Integrated Spatial Plan.
A. Damar
The new integrated spatial plan of Bontang City has been adopted by the local parliament in 2012 and is being implemented in parts. It now includes both land and marine areas with its mangroves, coral reefs and seagrass beds located within four miles from the shoreline. It is the first example of the implementation of the Indonesian Law No 26/2007 on Spatial Planning and Law No 27/2007 on Coastal Area and Small Islands Management to be applied in coastal districts/cities in Indonesia.
Last update: 01 Oct 2020
Challenges addressed
Ecosystem loss
Lack of technical capacity
Lack of public and decision maker’s awareness
Poor monitoring and enforcement
inefficient spatial planning, degradation of ecosystems and conflicts between stakeholders The integration of coastal and marine spatial planning addresses: • inefficiency of spatial planning processes where land and marine uses are treated separately and taking longer time and steps • intense conflicts between various stakeholders due to intensive human economic activities in land and marine areas • degradation of biodiversity and ecosystems due to lack of legalized spatial allocation
Scale of implementation
Coral reef
Protected and conserved areas governance
Local actors
Coastal and marine spatial management
Bontang City, Indonesia
Southeast Asia
Ecologic: Improvement of the quality of coral reef and mangrove ecosystems through setting up coastal and marine protection zones in the Bontang City and enhanced upland area management. Social: Reduction of spatial conflicts among stakeholders in the Bontang City area, leading to improved multiple-use of the coastal zone. In the long run, it is expected to facilitate economic capital investment in the area. Economic: Potential improvement of capture fisheries production, hence improvement of local fishermen income leading to poverty reduction.
local fishermen and shrimpfarmers, transportation and industrial sector and the government

About of 80% of Indonesia’ coastal districts have only land-based spatial planning, with the marine realm being neglected. The ‘solution’ is a novel approach to integrate land, coastal and marine ecosystems into spatial planning. It was started by a group of young and enthusiastic middle level governmental staff of Bontang City who were really keen on Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM), part of them being trained on ICZM at our university. These people were our main human capital and pre-condition for the success of our ‘solution’. We were very lucky to have them. The head of Bontang City Development Board was also supporting this idea and committed to fund the revision of Bontang City Spatial Plan. The ‘old’ Bontang City Spatial Plan only focused on land-based considerations and did not include any marine aspects. After overcoming the administrative obstacles we started designing the study methodology, strategy of data collection and, most importantly, the discussion with various stakeholders of Bontang City. Identifying key persons of each stakeholder group was a really important step. We selected key persons from each stakeholder group who were open minded for new ideas and approaches and willing to cooperate, and held a series of discussions. In parallel, we prepared the spatial analysis of the area. Ecosystem links and functions were analyzed and mapped. Environmental and socio-economic profiles of the area were identified and spatially projected into a map based on each topic. Various experts collected field data and information as well as issues related to each aspect. After environmental and social profiles had been analyzed, we identified the main issues, root problems, spatial conflicts, causes for ecosystem degradation, poverty level, environmental protection efforts, management efforts, etc. The main output of our solution is an integrated Bontang City Land-Coastal-Marine Spatial Plan, presented in a single spatial planning map. In the new integrated spatial plan of Bontang City, coastal and marine entities linked to the spatial allocation of economic functions both in land and marine areas. In 2012, the integrated spatial plan of Bontang City had been adopted by the local parliament and started to be implemented, and may now be adopted in other coastal districts in Indonesia.

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Ario Damar
Centre for Coastal and Marine Resources Studies, Bogor Agricultural University