Reforestation and rehabilitation of sandy coastal protection forest along with short-term livelihoods development for local community

GIZ
Published: 02 June 2018
Last edited: 09 July 2019
remove_red_eye 1181 Views

Summary

Hoa Binh village - located along the coastline in central Vietnam - is seriously exposed to strong storms, sea encroachment, sand moving, drought and coastline erosion. In addition, the village has approximately 123ha of sandy protection forest areas along a 3.5km coastal stretch. The forest was degraded because of bombing in the war, serious storms and over-harvesting of trees for firewood by local people, making the communities more vulnerable to climate change and extreme weather impacts.

Reforestation and rehabilitation of the coastal protection forest along with livelihood development activities for communities proved to be the most effective measure in reducing the vulnerabilty of local people. The pilot measure consisted of reforesting and rehabilitating 10 ha degraded sandy coastal protection forest as well as providing technical trainings and raising awareness among local communities

Classifications

Region
Southeast Asia
Scale of implementation
Local
Ecosystem
Coastal forest
Marine and coastal ecosystems
Theme
Adaptation
Agriculture
Ecosystem services
Erosion prevention
Forest Management
Challenges
Drought
Floods
Salinization
Sea level rise
Storm surges
Tropical cyclones / Typhoons
Lack of alternative income opportunities
Lack of technical capacity
Sustainable development goals
SDG 11 – Sustainable cities and communities
SDG 13 – Climate action
SDG 15 – Life on land
Aichi targets
Target 7: Sustainable agriculture, aquaculture and forestry
Target 10: Ecosystems vulnerable to climate change
Target 14: Ecosystem services
Target 15: Ecosystem restoration and resilience
Sendai Framework
Target 2: Reduce the number of affected people globally by 2030
Target 3: Reduce direct disaster economic loss in relation to GDP by 2030

Location

Quảng Trạch District, Quang Binh Province, Vietnam

Challenges

Environmental: Coastal areas are one the most affected regions by climate change impacts in a country where rising sea levels and extreme storms can have detrimental impacts on both the economy and local livelihoods. The sand-dunes and coastal protection forests, which can play important role in protecting the innerland from sea-level rising and strong storms, are seriously degraded though. The rising sea levels and the lack of appropriate coastal protection measures can lead to salt water intrusion, salinization of drinking water and agricultural land, and sand-moving to agricultural production areas.

 

Social: Meanwhile, incomes of local people in the pilot site mainly depend on agricultural production. Changing climate conditions also lead to changes in agricultural production systems. In agro-ecological zones this can have long-lasting impacts on the local economy and livelihoods.

Beneficiaries

More than 3,000 local people in Hoa Binh village have directly benefitted from the solution. In addition, the awareness and adaptive capacity of more than 1,500 people from other coastal communes and provincial staff was strengthened.

How do the building blocks interact?

The solution was identified via a series of studies and the assessment of the project (such as vulnerability assessment and studies on selecting potential EbA pilot measures) to select the most potential EbA pilot measure in the province. The project implementation started by raising awareness for local coastal communities via training courses on CC/CCA/EbA (Building block 1). This helped them to better understand climate change impacts and the increased value of available natural ecosystems from strengthening adaptive capacity and reducing serious impacts of climate change. The activity of reforestation and rehabilitation of coastal protection forests (Building block 2) aimed to restore natural sand-dune ecosystems which can reduce coastal erosion, form a protective storm-break against extreme weather events and sand-moving. Along with strengthening the adaptive capacity of communities and ecosystems, the provision of alternative livelihood options (Building block 3) is considered an effective approach to enhance the resilience of local communities towards climate change impacts.

Impacts

Environmental: Forest rehabilitation by mix-planting acacia (wattle), casuarina (whistling pine) and native species is expected to strengthen the adaptive capacity of ecosystems and local communities towards climate change impacts and extreme weather events. The restored forest serves as a strong wind-break, and as a sand-moving and sea erosion fence for the communities during the storm season. It also increases forest cover for climate-buffering and biodiversity conservation, improves soil humidity and serves as an underground water source.

Social & economic: Communication and ownership within the community is significantly strengthened via community-forest-protection groups. More than 3,000 residents are benefiting from this forest. Livelihoods have been improved in the short-term by using available local resources. Employment led to increade income between 30-50%. Ultimately, local peoples´ adaptive capacity is strengthened through developing diversified income streams based on sustainable and climate-smart practices. Additional 1,500 villagers from adjacent communities raised their awareness and were inspired by participating in training & field activities. 

 

Story

GIZ

Mrs. Thuong’s family lives near the protection forest in Hoa Binh village in Quang Hung commune. Her family’s income mainly depends on agricultural production such as rice cultivation, pig raising, and inshore fishing by her husband. According to her mother who is now more than 80 years old, in her memory, the coastal sand dunes in the commune were covered with high density forest and various indigenous tree species that locals benefitted from. For example by collecting firewood and dried leaves for animal raising, through available water resources from sand-dunes for domestic use, and less impact by sand-moving and storm wind to resident locations compared to the current situation. Since then, about 30-40 years ago, the coastal protection forest was gradually destroyed because of bombing in the war, increased intensity of serious storms and over-harvesting of trees for firewood by local people. This makes communities more vulnerable to extreme weather events. In the last 10 years, the serious impact of extreme weather and strong storms has been seen more clearly by local people. Examples include sea-enroachment by about 10-20m inland, sand-moving to production areas and shortage of water during the hot season.

In addition, fishing by Mrs. Thuong’s husband brings less income compared to before because of a reduction of fishes in both quantity and quality caused by climate change. Her income from agricultural production has been facing problems by extreme weather, diseases and decreased quality of seedlings.

After 2 years with support from the project, she has learned a lot about climate change and adaptation measures, technical knowledge about vegetable farming (organic products) and diversity and resilience of seedlings for different crops. Mrs. Thuong and her mother are working together in her vegetable garden. Her family’s income has increased by 50%, so she can now afford food and sending her children to school. She is also a member of the community-forest protection group which works on afforestation and forest protection. Mrs. Thuong is very happy and told project staff she believes that in the coming years, the forest will surely bring many benefits for her family and community. Her family will no longer worry about strong storms, sand-moving problems, and underground water will be recovered soon for their production activities.

Contributed by

Ngoc Anh Nguyen Thi Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH

Other contributors

Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH
Quang Binh Provincial Department of Natural Resources and Environment