Enhancing NGO capacity on community-based conservation and development in Myanmar

Global Environment Institute
Publicado: 17 Junio 2020
Última edición: 17 Junio 2020
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The Community Conservation Concession Agreement (CCCA) is an innovative approach to conservation which gives different stakeholders environmental protection rights and limited development rights within protected areas. It involves communities in conservation efforts while supporting their livelihoods. In 2016, the CCCA model was introduced in Myanmar by the Global Environmental Institute through four local NGOs. Sixteen projects were conducted and over 4,000 hectares of land were conserved.


As a key strategy to sustain gains and increase the impact of CCCA model, in 2017 this project was implemented to enhance the capacity of groups and organizations in Myanmar on CCCA and community-based conservation and development. With the support of CEPF, GEI conducted a series of trainings on CCCA implementation. It built a platform for local NGOs to collaborate with government agencies, to network with international donors, and conducted a series of trainings on CCCA implementation.


Sudeste Asiático
Escala de aplicación
Bosques tropicales de hoja perenne
Ecosistemas de agua dulce
Ecosistemas forestales
Ecosistemas marinos y costeros
Humedales (pantano, turberas)
Selva baja caducifolia
Acceso y participación en los beneficios
Energías renovables
Financiación sostenible
Gobernanza de áreas protegidas
Manejo de bosques
Medios de vida sostenibles
Incremento de temperatura
Cambio estacional
Pérdida de ecosistemas
Falta de oportunidades de ingresos alternativos
Deficiente gobernanza y participación
Falta de seguridad alimentaria
Desempleo / pobreza
Objectivos de Desarrollo Sostenible
ODS 11 - Ciudades y comunidades sostenibles
ODS 14 - Vida submarina
ODS 15 - Vida de ecosistemas terrestres
ODS 17 - Alianzas para lograr los objetivos
Metas de Aichi
Meta 1: Aumento de la sensibilization sobre la biodiversidad
Meta 3: Incentivos reformados
Meta 5: Pérdida de hábitat reducida a la mitad o reducida
Meta 11: Las áreas protegidas
Meta 14: Los servicios ecosistemicos
Meta 20: Movilización de recursos de todas las fuentes


Alaungdaw Kathapa National Park, Kani Township, Sagaing Region | Palaw Township, Myeik District, Tanintharyi Region Nyaung Shwe Township, Taunggyi District, Shan state Bago and Waw Township, Bago Region


In contrast to the country's biological richness, at least a third of the local population currently lives below the poverty line and depends on natural resources for their livelihoods. Since 2010, Myanmar has lost approximately 546,000 hectares of forest annually, which means almost 2% of the country’s forest cover has been lost each year.


While the timber trade and agricultural reclamation contribute to deforestation in Myanmar, illegal logging for wood fuel collection by villagers also occurs at a critical rate. Rural villages, which comprise a majority of the population, consume approximately 1.8 million cubic tons of firewood each year.


The problem is bigger than what local NGOs can cope with. Myanmar’s NGOs were not fully equipped to manage conservation strategies, engage with international parties, as well as learn, share and implement innovative protection practices such as the CCCA model.


The beneficiaries are local NGOs, CSOs and other organizations, protected area managers, the local forest department and police department, as well as local communities.

¿ Cómo interactúan los building blocks en la solución?

The first building block aims to address the challenge of how local NGOs had relatively low capacity for managing conservation strategies, engaging with international parties, as well as learning, sharing and implementing innovative conservation practices such as the CCCA model. After capacity enhancement, the second building block can effectively address the challenge wherein local communities are dependent on natural resources, and the need for innovative conservation models.

Impactos positivos

Through capacity enhancement, the collaboration between GEI and local NGOs brought positive impacts to Myanmar communities. The project:

  1. contributed to the conservation of more land and ecosystems by communities. The conservation area protected by communities within these projects expanded to 16.5 hectares;
  2. showed that most of the threats to national parks can be addressed by conservation action;
  3. showed local communities have a good awareness of environmental issues, especially about deforestation and climate change. This demonstrated positive outcomes from awareness raising trainings from both NGOs and local forest departments;
  4. The Biodiversity and Protected Area Law, as passed in 2018 recognized “Community Protected Areas” as an official category of protected areas;
  5. demonstrated positive social and economic impacts. Overall, 22 community funds were established to support sustainable livelihoods, with a capital of USD59,318.58; and
  6. increased annual the household income by 17%.


In 2015, GEI, in collaboration with the government of Myanmar and Spring Foundation, conducted a pilot project in Thanbyar Khone (TBK) village along the Yangon-Naypyidaw highway. After understanding the community’s needs, through dialogue and research, GEI donated clean cookstoves, household solar-powered lighting systems as well as a solar-powered water pump to TBK and provided assistance in establishing a firewood plantation and community fund, with usage fees paid by local residents.


Based on the success of TBK pilot project, in 2016, GEI officially introduced the CCCA model to Myanmar in collaboration with four local NGOs. The aim was to engage local communities in conservation work in exchange for sustainable development support such as livelihood training, renewable energy goods, and the establishment of a community fund. Meanwhile, GEI also worked on enhancing the capacity of local NGOs to implement and manage CCCA projects.


GEI collaborated with Myanmar Forest Association (MFA) to implement CCCA in other areas. The selected site was Palaw township in the Tanintharyi Region, and the focus was mangrove forest conservation. Seven villages in two islands were chosen for the CCCA model. Each community formed a Village Development Committee (VDC) to conduct conservation activities listed in signed 5-year agreements. Meanwhile, MFA also conducted training on sustainable livelihoods such as eco-husbandry, organic fruit farming and sustainable fishing, and established a community fund to support the development of these livelihoods.


To enhance MFA’s capacity for project management and connection with other groups working on community-based conservation, GEI conducted several workshops. Together with government officials, local and international NGOs and other stakeholders, these aimed to build knowledge, share lessons-learned and build communication. MFA was also able to establish a field office in Kanti village with dedicated project staff.

MFA’s project has so far conserved 840 hectares of mangrove forest in the Myeik Archipelago (a Key Biodiversity Area), and helped protect two critically endangered mangrove species: Bruguiera hainesii and Sonneratia caseolaris. They also replanted over 37,000 mangrove stocks in gaps in the forests. Villagers actively attended trainings, and two community funds were established with a capital of USD 3767.17.

Contribuido por

Vanessa Carriedo IUCN

Contribuído por

Global Environment Institute
Global Environment Institute