Maristanis: an integrated coastal and wetlands management

Andrea Liverani
Publicado: 01 Agosto 2022
Última edición: 01 Agosto 2022
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The proposed intervention is part of a complex project, Maristanis, funded by the Mava Foundation and coordinated by the MEDSEA Foundation. Maristanis developed activities regarding governance, water quality and saving, restoration (sea and land-based) and agriculture and fishing involvement. In the governance framework, the project focussed on creating an integrated management model offering a long-term management strategy for the coastal wetlands found in the Gulf of Oristano – a new regional park. It contributed to balancing social and environmental needs and paved the way to recognise the economic and cultural potential of the wetlands. As the implementation of the intervention was still underway, a self-assessment using the IUCN Global Standard for Nature-based Solutionsᵀᴹ was carried out. It was used to identify entry points to strengthen the intervention under the umbrella of Nature-based Solutions.


Europa Occidental y del Sur
Scale of implementation
Campos de cultivo
Ecosistemas de agua dulce
Ecosistemas marinos y costeros
Humedales (pantano, turberas)
Marisma salina
Pradera marina
Adaptación al cambio climático
Comunicación y divulgación
Conocimientos tradicionales
Especies exóticas invasoras
Fragmentación del hábitat y degradación
Gestión y planificación de áreas protegidas y conservadas
Gobernanza de las áreas protegidas y conservadas
Institucionalización de la biodiversidad
Manejo espacial de la zona marino-costera
Marco legal y normativo
Mitigación del cambio climático
Pesca y acuicultura
Prevención de erosión
Provisión y manejo del agua
Reducción de desastres
Servicios ecosistémicos
Species Conservation and One Health Interventions
Vigilancia de la salud de la vida silvestre (para capturar la vigilancia de la biodiversidad, la salud, las enfermedades y los patógenos)
Seguimiento e investigación de especies
Manejo / Remoción de Especies Invasoras
Comunicación de riesgos, participación de la comunidad y cambio de comportamiento
Incremento de temperatura
Pérdida de la biodiversidad
Aumento del nivel del mar
Mareas altas (tormentas)
Usos conflictivos / impactos acumulativos
Pérdida de ecosistemas
Especies invasoras
Gestión ineficaz de los recursos financieros
Falta de acceso a financiación a largo plazo
Falta de oportunidades de ingresos alternativos
Falta de conciencia del público y de los responsables de la toma de decisiones
Falta de capacidad técnica
Deficiente vigilancia y aplicación de la ley
Deficiente gobernanza y participación
Sustainable development goals
ODS 6 - Agua limpia y saneamiento
ODS 12 - Producción y consumo responsables
ODS 13 - Acción por el clima
ODS 14 - Vida submarina
ODS 15 - Vida de ecosistemas terrestres
Aichi targets
Meta 1: Aumento de la sensibilization sobre la biodiversidad
Meta 2: Valores de biodiversidad integrados
Meta 5: Pérdida de hábitat reducida a la mitad o reducida
Meta 7: Agricultura, acuicultura y silvicultura
Meta 9: Especies exóticas invasoras prevenidas y controladas
Meta 10: Ecosistemas vulnerables al cambio
Meta 11: Áreas protegidas y conservadas
Meta 14: Los servicios ecosistemicos
Meta 15: Restauración de ecosistemas y resiliencia
Meta 17: Estrategias y planes de acción para la biodiversidad
Meta 18: Conocimiento tradicional
Meta 19: Intercambio de información y conocimiento
Business engagement approach
Compromiso directo con asociaciones
Indirecto a través del gobierno
(I)NDC Submission


Oristano, Oristano, Italy
Mostrar en “Planeta protegido”


Overexploitation, land-use changes, hydrological alterations, pollution and anthropogenic pressures pose risks to ecosystem health and biodiversity as well as the economic, social and cultural benefits derived from the wetland ecosystems. The coastal area of the Gulf of Oristano includes six Ramsar sites, 19 Natura 2000 sites in 11 municipalities and one Marine Protected Area across approx. 7,700 ha along 140 km of coastline.

The presence of 11 Municipalities determines some failures in wetlands management. The presence of a single authority devoted to wetlands management (a Regional Park) would guarantee a greater commitment also in the search for regular funds and consequently better planning of activities in the medium and long term. The main economic activities in the region include artisanal fishing, agriculture and tourism, which have often different needs and perceptions of the wetlands. 


Fisheries and farming associations, territorial authorities, local companies, fishermen, farmers, tourism operators

¿ Cómo interactúan los building blocks en la solución?

The building blocks highlight a number of key insights that emerged from the assessment of the integrated coastal and wetlands management intervention in the Gulf of Oristano.

Strong analysis and data collection carried out over the five years of the project provided the basis for interlinking all the activities developed in the project and emphasised in the Building Blocks.

This activity facilitated and made efficient the work of the Coastal Contract Technical Secretariat, which accompanied the municipalities in the administrative and technical procedures of defining the strategic objectives and actions of the Coastal Wetland Contract.

Finally, a wide-ranging process of involvement and awareness-raising of key actors in the area, agricultural sector, fishing, tourism, environmental associations, etc. accompanied the project in all its phases and activities, in particular during the definition of the Coastal Wetland Contract. Both individual and public meetings were used.



The main positive impact of the proposed and implemented governance model is to guarantee management and coordination between the several involved actors  (11 municipalities, the regional government, the water authority, more than 50 main economic companies, etc.),  The scope of the governance is to strengthen the conservation of coastal and marine habitats, reinforce resilience to climate change impacts and reduce water consumption, abstraction, pollution and contamination. More than 70 stakeholders participated in the 9 official meetings of the participation process presenting the Coastal Wetland Contract and the opportunities arising from the institution of a Regional Park.

Speaking instead of the more practical activities:

  • The area that has benefited from the restoration measures developed in the project is estimated at about 600 ha.
  • The new island for bird nesting has a surface of 110 square meters, a building with 143 cubic meters of mussels inside to 1100 jute sacks.
  • Precision agriculture measures were tested on more than 200 hectares, mainly with drones on maize and rice cultivation. Sub-irrigation technologies were tested on 9 hectares cultivated with (organic) artichokes and strawberries, and surface micro-irrigation on three carrot hectares. A precision agriculture project with satellites on 5000 hectares, mainly used to cultivate maize for feeding cattle, was developed.


“The Maristanis Contract can allow us to overcome a series of constraints related to the provisions on aid to businesses, especially those in the fishing sector, which more than any other is suffering because of climate change. The Coastal Contract may become a driving force for investments. The fishing sector needs it. There’s still a lot to be developed". Alessandro Porcu, technical director of the S. Andrew Fishermen's Cooperative.


"Our territory is characterized by its inability to transform resources into products. Travellers who visit the Gulf of Oristano complain about the absence of a system that makes environment, culture and tourism parts of the same system. We hope that the park will create these conditions in the shortest possible time". Maria Roberta Sanna, owner of the Mistral I and Mistral II hotels in Oristano.


"The creation of a park can also positively influence the approach to tourism, making it more aware of the extraordinary importance that the six Ramsar sites of Oristano represent in terms of wildlife". Gabriele Pinna, ornithologist and president of the LIPU of Oristano


"The creation of the park and an integrated governance is “desirable”. The Coastal Agreement is the place for discussion and synthesis that can simplify the bureaucratic processes, often a burden to the entrepreneurs' initiatives, especially when they want innovation to intercept the environmental need". Paolo Mele, president of Confagricoltura Sardegna.


"The contract provides us with a great tool, especially when it comes to bureaucratic simplification. Streamlining the dialogue between companies and institutions is of major importance. It is up to us, then, to take advantage of it and seize this great opportunity”. Andrea Liverani, Smart Geo Survey s.r.l. and local entrepreneur


"The Coastal Contract is with no doubt a useful tool to promote the area and contribute to local development. Being part of this group will allow us to propose paths and objectives that go in the direction of protecting nature and sustainable development”. Francesca Figus, marketing manager of Nieddittas, a leading mussels-farming company in the Gulf of Oristano.

Contribuido por

Imagen de francescaetzi_41831

Francesca Etzi MEDSEA Foundation

Other contributors

Francesca Antonelli, Alessandra Pome', Emmanuelle Cohen-Shacham
SCP/RAC expert contribution
Alessandro Miraglia and Magali Outters
SCP/RAC supervision and coordination