Smallholder farmers taking the lead: Farmer Field Schools in Tajikistan

Public Organization "Rushnoi"
Publié: 12 juillet 2020
Dernière modification: 12 juillet 2020
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Résumé

Assisting farmers to implement land conserving approaches and to foster biodiversity through Farmer Field Schools (FFS) is an initial and important step to tackle challenges in Tajikistan’s agriculture. During FFS farmers are taking the lead during an adult educational approach where everyone meets at eye level. The knowledge and experience of the farmers is a driving factor during the workshops.

 

The Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH and Deutsche Welthungerhilfe (WHH) as implementing partner held 37 FFS in two districts in Tajikistan.

 

The focus of the FFS was not on a specific crop, but on diversification of crops and cultivation methods. The technical approaches came from an assessment that was done prior to the FFS and the participating farmers itself. The emphasis was on local needs and included good practices in pasture management, orchard management and diversified irrigation methods. In addition, approaches to reduce soil erosion were implemented.

Classifications

Région
Asie du Nord et Centrale
Échelle de la mise en œuvre
Intranational
Local
National
Ecosystème
Agroforesterie
Pâturages
Terres cultivées
Verger
Écosystème agricole
Thème
Accès et partage des avantages
Adaptation au changement climatique
Agriculture
Gestion des ressources forestières
L'intégration de la biodiversité
Prévention de l'érosion
Réduction des risques de catastrophes
Challenges
Précipitations erratiques
Inondations
Dégradation des terres et des forêts
Perte de biodiversité
Érosion
Perte de l'écosystème
Manque de capacités techniques
Manque de sécurité alimentaire
Objectifs de Développement Durable
ODD 2 - Faim "zéro"
ODD 3 - Bonne santé et bien-être
ODD 12 - Consommation et production responsables
ODD 13 - Mesures relatives à la lutte contre les changements climatiques
ODD 15 - Vie terrestre
Obectifs d'Aichi
Objectif 1: Sensibilisation accrue de la biodiversité
Objectif 2: Valeurs de la biodiversité intégrées
Objectif 4: Production et consommation durables
Objectif 7: Agriculture, aquaculture et sylviculture durable
Objectif 10: Ecosystèmes vulnérables au changement climatique
Objectif 12: Réduction du risque d'extinction
Objectif 13: Sauvegarde de la diversité génétique
Objectif 14: Services des écosystèmes
Objectif 15: Restauration et la résilience des écosystèmes
Objectif 18: Connaissances traditionnelles
Objectif 19: Partage de l'information et de la connaissance

Emplacement

Tajikistan

Défis

The agricultural sector is one of the most important sectors in Tajikistan, accounting for more than 30% of the GDP and employing 70% of the people. Besides plant cultivation, livestock breeding plays an important role for the farmer's income. Irrigation cultivation is only used in a few overused hotspot areas. Monoculture, overgrazing and overuse with high application of pesticides and fertilizers put a stress on ecosystems. With 9.771 plant species Tajikistan is a globally important biodiversity hotspot that is worth being protected.

 

Furthermore, climate change will have far-reaching effects. With extreme weather events more likely to occur, Tajikistan’s fragile, mountainous ecosystems are under threat. Soil erosion and land degradation pose a risk to food security and economic income of farmers.

Bénéficiaires

The main beneficiaries are farmers and their families in Ayni and Rasht District in Tajikistan as well as the communities they live in.

 

In addition, trainers and cooperating NGOs increased their capacities through training that was given.

Comment les blocs constitutifs interagissent-ils entre eux dans la solution?

FFS were first implemented in 1989 in Indonesia by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and partners. It was designed to give an answer to the then dominating top down approaches. Since then, the concept has played an important role in various implementations.

 

During FFS a group of 20-25 people meets once a week/month at training fields. Through the guidance of a facilitator the skills and knowledge of the farmers are improved. New practices are tested and validated, and an informed decision making is fostered. Best practice examples are presented, but the decision for the best solution is left to the farmers. FFS guide through at least one cultivation process to give participants the possibility to implement new methods successfully.

 

There is numerous material on how to best develop and implement FFS in general. The building blocks will present the most important aspects that were identified during the FFS that were held in Tajikistan by the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH and Deutsche Welthungerhilfe e.V. as implementing partner.

Les impacts positifs

During the FFS more than 700 farmers (57% female) were reached in 6 thematic and 2 evaluation sessions. Workshops were spread over a growing season to provide support from sowing to harvesting and the subsequent preparation for the next season.

 

Impacts on farmers' living

  • Diversified household diet
  • Less risk of total failure of harvest
  • Increased food security
  • Increased capacity (e.g. preparatory techniques) and problem solving skills
  • Increased self-reliance

Impacts on biodiversity

  • Behavioral change of farmers towards natural resources
  • Newly created habitats (living fences, planting trees as shelterbelts)
  • Increased crop variety and reintroduction of traditional, local crops
  • Production and application of organic fertilizer
  • Usage of intercropping
  • Farmers conserving and sharing local seeds in seedbanks

Climate change resilience

  • Designing contour lines properly and contour ploughing
  • No/low tillage techniques
  • Water management (improved furrow irrigation and water harvesting)
  • Reseeding of rain-fed pasture land

Social Impacts

  • Strengthened local collaboration and community building
  • Strengthened local knowledge
  • Exchange of information between farmers living in different regions

Histoire

Deutsche Welthungerhilfe

We would love to present a story here. Due to COVID-19 it is unfortunately not possible to conduct field visits. If longer meetings are possible before the end of the project we will publish a story here later. In the meantime you are welcome to look at other stories and solutions from the project:

 

  • https://panorama.solutions/en/solution/resilient-orchards
  • https://panorama.solutions/en/solution/integrative-forest-management
  • https://panorama.solutions/en/solution/sustainable-pasture-management-improving-grassland-ecosystems-and-livelihoods-0
  • https://panorama.solutions/en/solution/diversified-kitchen-gardens
  • https://panorama.solutions/en/solution/sustainably-managed-irrigated-annual-crops

Contribué par

Thure de Frenne Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH