Recovering the administration of ancestral land: the establishment of the Indigenous Community Ma’u Henua, stewards of Rapa Nui National Park, Chile

Servicio Nacional de Patrimonio Cultural
Publié: 05 novembre 2020
Dernière modification: 11 novembre 2020
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Résumé

Famous for the Moai colossal stone figures, Rapa Nui island is fully protected as a Historical Monument, combining archaeological testimonies and natural values of a complex ecosystem subject to hazards and vulnerable to climate change. Approximately 40% of the island corresponds to the Rapa Nui National Park, in the World Heritage List since 1995 under criteria (i), (iii) and (v). Until then, the regulatory system conceived in the mainland in Chile had not sufficiently addressed the fragile island ecosystem, the significance of its archaeological heritage, and the uniqueness of Rapa Nui people’s cultural identity and way of life. This had a negative impact in conservation and a progressive dissociation from the community. To change this, a community-based management was proposed by the Rapa Nui community to the Government of Chile. In 2017, the Polynesian Indigenous Community Mau Henua was granted the park administration, assuming the challenges that internal management involves.

Classifications

Région
Amérique du Sud
Échelle de la mise en œuvre
Intranational
Local
Ecosystème
Buildings and facilities
Plage
Pâturages
Récif rocailleux / Rive rocailleux
Terres cultivées
la mer ouverte
Écosystème agricole
Écosystème urbain
Écosystèmes marins et côtiers
Thème
Connaissances traditionnelles
Culture
Espèces exotiques envahissantes
Fragmentation et la dégradtion de l'habitat
Gestion des aires protégées
Indigènes
L'intégration de la biodiversité
Prévention de l'érosion
Restauration
Tourisme
World Heritage
Îles
Challenges
Séisme
Dégradation des terres et des forêts
Perte de biodiversité
Montée du niveau des mers
Tsunami/Raz-de-marée
Incendies
Utilisations conflictuelles / impacts cumulatifs
Érosion
Perte de l'écosystème
Espèces envahissantes
Manque d'autres possibilités de revenu
Changements dans le contexte socio-culturel
Manque de capacités techniques
Manque de sensibilisation du public et des décideurs
Mauvaise surveillance et application de la loi
Manque d'infrastructures
Mauvaise gouvernance et participation
Objectifs de Développement Durable
ODD 1 - Pas de pauvreté
ODD 8 - Travail décent er croissance économique
ODD 10 - Inégalités réduites
ODD 11 - Villes et communautés durables
ODD 13 - Mesures relatives à la lutte contre les changements climatiques
ODD 15 - Vie terrestre
Obectifs d'Aichi
Objectif 1: Sensibilisation accrue de la biodiversité
Objectif 2: Valeurs de la biodiversité intégrées
Objectif 4: Production et consommation durables
Objectif 8: Pollution réduite
Objectif 10: Ecosystèmes vulnérables au changement climatique
Objectif 11: Aires protégées
Objectif 15: Restauration et la résilience des écosystèmes
Objectif 17: Stratégies de la biodiversité et des plans d'action
Objectif 18: Connaissances traditionnelles

Emplacement

Easter Island, Chile

Défis

The management has been affected by an underlying social challenge: the need of community involvement in heritage protection. The administration by external institutions generated a distance between the community and the protection and uses of their heritage. This distancing restrained the strengthening of local institutions and the capacity building of local youth in heritage management. The absence of experiences and roles in the management system limited the development of common objectives. The dissociation between the community and its heritage as well as the lack of participatory mechanisms for their involvement and the use of their traditional knowledge was reflected in the decay of the cultural and natural heritage in the island. Internal management required to establish dialogue mechanisms and education for the adequate administration, considering culturally safe protocols for the protection of cultural heritage as part of the transition from state to community administration.

Bénéficiaires

The Rapa Nui Indigenous Community, the State Party of Chile, tourists

Comment les blocs constitutifs interagissent-ils entre eux dans la solution?

The transfer required a legal foundation, skilled human resources and knowledge (BB1 & BB2). Ma’u Henua involved youth with higher education and professional experience who were looking for opportunities in the island. This enabled young Rapa Nui to apply their knowledge and experience, connecting to traditional and local knowledge involving elders and other locals (BB2 & BB3). In the whole process, there is constant dialogue with the Indigenous Community who communicate needs and give support for an appropriate management, with locals also involved as staff of the National Park. The direct participation of the Rapa Nui Community is essential, supporting the transfer of knowledge, language and traditions to new generations, linking our idiosyncrasy and life to that of our ancestors.The creation of an administrative structure with technical procedures helps to order processes and keep the community informed. Within this, a department dedicated to archeology (BB4) is fundamental for enhancing conservation and monitor the impacts of climate change. The coordination with other institutions that can contribute to the management is key.

Les impacts positifs

  1. Mau Henua has the administration of the Rapa Nui National Park and all decision-making is validated through its exposure to the entire Indigenous Community. A participatory decision-making process has been implemented which involves all the community, mainly the Honui, ancestral and customary authority integrated by representatives of each Rapa Nui family, who are informed permanently and with whom actions with the Community are coordinated. 
  2. Habilitation of 20 new official visitation sites, counting with a total of 25 currently, showing areas of the island with natural and cultural values, which allow to reduce tourism impact in the old trails.
  3. Increase in National Park revenues.
  4. Creation of 300 jobs, among others, involving locals as park-rangers, which allow the increase of the number of park rangers from 15 to 115. 
  5. Implementation of a diagnosis and monitoring methodology based on laser scanner records in a number of sites.
  6. Development of a visitation plan for the promotion of the sustainable use, both traditional and contemporary, of the entire National Park, with the habilitation of equipment and infrastructure of visiting sites with sustainability criteria. 
  7. Management Plan including not only the national park but also the knowledge of a culture of Polynesian origin which developed a  unique culture in the world, marked by complex events that have transformed their existence.

Histoire

Servicio Nacional de Patrimonio Cultural

I had the opportunity to be the first one to occupy this position, after we, Rapa Nui, achieved the administration of the National Park after 85 years of its establishment. In this way, I could contribute to this historical process for the Island, its community and its heritage.

 

As the Chief of the Department of Archaeology, I had the task to lead actions for the return of Rapa Nui heritage that is held outside of our territory, to manage conservation and habilitation projects for the preservation of the archaeological sites in the Park, as well as to promote the internal capacity and the acquisition of equipment for digital recording so the usually costly tasks of diagnosis and monitoring could be done by the community. 

 

My life experience has been fundamental for this work, since I grew up learning from Rafael Rapu Haoa, local specialist in conservation and restoration, knowledgeable about the moai and ahu, manager and executor of their restoration and rescue and whose vision, knowledge and work are present in Ahu Tongariki, the UNESCO-Japan project, the Ceremonial Village of Orongo, among others. Added to this, I followed a formal academic training in the continent.

 

In Rapa Nui heritage, the tangible and the intangible are indissoluble. Their safeguarding must be addressed in this way and this has been our first step as community in telling the world: we are Indigenous, this is part of our culture and we are technicians, delivering a good proposal for heritage management based on this holistic perspective.

 

One of the big theoretical dilemmas in my profession is the dispute between science and traditional knowledge. By being Indigenous and studying science at the same time, I see that these are two perspectives which complement each other to explain reality. This is very useful in conservation because it allows us to recognize the material part of heritage and at the same time, its cultural roots in people and their identity.

 

The scientific perspective allows us giving objective sense to oral tradition by complementing it with data. It is essential to have a critical view, not only absorb and replicate. Hence, giving a look to both sides is fundamental to understand and manage heritage in a good way. As administrators, this is what we have tried to promote when proposing our heritage management approach. (Rafael Rapu, Rapa Nui archaeologist)

Contribué par

Comunidad Indígena Ma'u Henua

Soumise par

World Heritage Sites National Center
World Heritage Sites National Center
STP Rapa Nui – National Monuments Council
Lissette Valenzuela
World Heritage Sites National Center
Comunidad Indígena Ma'u Henua
ICCROM-IUCN World Heritage Leadership