Successfully conserving critical corridors and bottlenecks using the community-based management.

Forest user groups
Published: 04 October 2021
Last edited: 04 October 2021
remove_red_eye 776 Views


Since the last decade in Nepal, the landscape-based conservation approach has been adopted as an opportunity to scale up conservation initiatives. The Terai Arc Landscape Programme of Nepal is one of the examples of such approach.  The implementation has been tailored to the specific requirements of core protected areas, buffer zones, corridors, and bottleneck areas. The approach has resulted in a higher level of biodiversity conservation and management, increased number of all species of megafauna, improved livelihoods of local communities with women leadership, sustainable forest management and ultimately contributed to address climate change.  It has distributed the roles, rights and responsibilities among diverse stakeholders, and they are brought together to conserve forests and biodiversity through community-based management (CBM). Dr Ram Prasad Lamsal has contributed significantly to improving policy, practices, and governance and building innovations in CBM in the landscape.


South Asia
Scale of implementation
Forest ecosystems
Tropical deciduous forest
Connectivity / transboundary conservation
Gender mainstreaming
Habitat fragmentation and degradation
Indigenous people
Local actors
Traditional knowledge
Erratic rainfall
Extreme heat
Land and Forest degradation
Loss of Biodiversity
Shift of seasons
Invasive species
Pollution (incl. eutrophication and litter)
Lack of access to long-term funding
Lack of technical capacity
Lack of infrastructure
Lack of food security
Unemployment / poverty
Sustainable development goals
SDG 1 – No poverty
SDG 5 – Gender equality
SDG 13 – Climate action
SDG 15 – Life on land
Aichi targets
Target 1: Awareness of biodiversity increased
Target 5: Habitat loss halved or reduced
Target 7: Sustainable agriculture, aquaculture and forestry
Target 9: Invasive alien species prevented and controlled
Target 11: Protected and conserved areas
Target 15: Ecosystem restoration and resilience
Target 17: Biodiversity strategies and action plans
Target 18: Traditional knowledge
Target 19: Sharing information and knowledge
Sendai Framework
Target 4: Reduce disaster damage to critical infrastructure and disruption of basic services, among them health and educational facilities, including through developing their resilience by 2030
Target 5: Increase the number of countries with national and local disaster risk reduction strategies by 2020
Target 6: Enhance international cooperation to developing countries through adequate and sustainable support to complement their national actions for implementation of this Framework by 2030
(I)NDC Submission


Terai, Nepal | Four corridors (Mohana-Laljhadi, Basanta, Khata and Barandavar), three bottleneck areas (Mahadevpuri, Lamahi and Dovan) and associated buffer zone areas of Chitwan National Park, Banke National Park and Bardia National Park.
Show on Protected Planet


Population pressure on forest resources through shifting cultivation, overgrazing, commercial tree cutting, and agricultural land encroachment is leading to severe exploitation of forest resources in Nepal, with seroius ecological consequences in the form of soil erosion and landslides. Climate change along with human activities have led to deforestation, forest and habitat degradation and unsustainable logging. Major threats are grazing all year around, poaching for high value products, illegal logging and unsustainable tourism.


The beneficiaries are socially disadvantaged women, untouchables, indigenous communities, minorities, people with disabilities, marginalized groups, backward classes, youth, farmers, workers, oppressed and economically poor.

How do the building blocks interact?

To ensure the success of CBM and its associated strategies,  a set of principles are considered as the building blocks. The principles cannot be thought of as independent building blocks ; they rather can be arranged in a mix and match approach: taking the most desirable option from each block to create an effective, efficient, and equitable conservation which maximises the potential benefits and minimises the risks. Effective participation is an important characteristic of effective governance, and involves identifying multiple stakeholders and incorporating them in decision-making processes. Stakeholders can start interacting with each other through formal and informal rules, institutions and processes.


The laws create rights that provide the foundation for forest institutions and processes. These institutions establish basic principles for how people interact with each other and with their resources. This includes rights to access, stakeholder management and the ability to pass these rights on to future generations.


The program has yielded the following impacts:

  • Forests protected, restored, and managed; conserved biodiversity, wildlife and habitats and wetlands; increased number of all species of megafauna, empowered communities for gender, leadership, livelihood improvement and enterprises; and addressed climate change issues.
  • Developed improved community-based model with cost effective approach and high degree of community participation and contribution, and strong partnership.
  • Hybridized traditional and scientific knowledge; and shared monitoring, evaluation and learning system.



Forest encroachment evacuated by local communities


In the Nepalese context, forest encroachment is the illegal conversion of forested land to other land uses, such as agriculture and settlement. It is one of the major drivers of deforestation and forest degradation in Nepal which is more prominent in the Terai and Siwalik regions.

Just before the local election in 2018, nearly 4000 people from outside the district have come with political motive to encroach the forest land being managed by local communities. The local communities developed the networks, communicated with law enforcement agencies and developed teams to evacuate the encroachers and protect the forest. The communities succeeded and the forest is under active management.

Contributed by

ishwarippoudel_40295's picture

Ishwari Prasad Poudel Divisional Forest Office, Kapilvastu

Other contributors

Community forest user groups