Support the Implementation of the Paris Agreement in Viet Nam

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Guinea grass intercropped with fruit trees
ICRAF, Le Thi Tam

In response to the Paris Agreement, and Viet Nam's high levels of climate vulnerability, the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety funded the project, Support the Implementation of Paris Agreement in Viet Nam. A sub-project, Development and Implementation of Participatory Ecosystem-based Adaptation Measures, Climate-Smart Agriculture and Climate Risk Management for Poor Households in Vulnerable Districts of Ha Tinh Province, was implemented October 2019 to June 2022 by provincial partners with World Agroforestry (ICRAF) as the lead. Five measures were implemented, showing increased incomes and enhanced climate resilience.

Last update: 30 Jan 2023
Challenges addressed
Erratic rainfall
Extreme heat
Increasing temperatures
Land and Forest degradation
Loss of Biodiversity
Conflicting uses / cumulative impacts
Ecosystem loss
Lack of access to long-term funding
Lack of alternative income opportunities
Changes in socio-cultural context
Lack of food security
Lack of public and decision maker’s awareness
Lack of technical capacity
Poor monitoring and enforcement
Poor governance and participation
Unemployment / poverty

Ha Tinh, a province with some of the most challenging climatic conditions in the country, was selected for pilot implementation of EbA measures. ICRAF was selected as a co-implementing partner to support “development and implementation of participatory ecosystem-based adaptation measures, climate-smart agriculture and climate risk management for poor households in vulnerable districts of Ha Tinh Province” (SIPA Ha Tinh). SIPA Ha Tinh worked in two pilot districts from October 2019 to December 2021. The pilot sites were selected through a participatory consultation process with relevant actors in Ha Tinh Province, in accordance with agreed criteria.


3500 households benefited directly from implementation of EbA/CSA (the project only targeted 1250 households). Of the 242 HHs covered in the endline survey, 95% reported increases in agricultural income.

Scale of implementation
Genetic diversity
Habitat fragmentation and degradation
Disaster risk reduction
Connectivity / transboundary conservation
Ecosystem services
Erosion prevention
Gender mainstreaming
Legal & policy frameworks
Food security
Health and human wellbeing
Sustainable livelihoods
Local actors
Flood management
Land management
Watershed management
Outreach & communications
Science and research
Fisheries and aquaculture
Waste management
Ha Tinh, Vietnam
Southeast Asia
Summary of the process

Partnership with local partners set the scene. Without such partnerships, the project would have been unlikely to proceed let alone succeed. The support and inputs of the Farmers Union and Extension Center, in particular, were essential for maintaining progress in the field during the pandemic's travel restrictions, and without the approval of the provincial government the project would not have been possible.


Building the capacity of these local partners was critical because without capable partners no field activities would have possible.


Tthe five EbA/CSA measures were the core of the project. Engaging farmers and extension staff in selection of the five measures was essential for adoption.

Building Blocks
Partnerships with local partners

Partnerships with the provincial Taskforce, which oversaw the project's activities in general, and the provincial Agriculture Extension Center and Farmers’ Union helped achieve the expected results despite travel restrictions owing to COVID-19.


Partnerships with these local partners also led to the later integration of the project’s interventions into provincial partner’s programmes.

Enabling factors

* Engagement with all levels of government in the province, specifically, at the project's sites, was critically important to establish the partnerships

* Endorsement of the project at national level was critical to ensure provincial and local buy-in

* Widespread availability of smartphones and access to network and desktop computers was vital to ensuring progress even during the pandemic's travel restrictions

Lesson learned

* Building strong partnerships is a risk-reduction strategy, as shown during the pandemic wherein local partners were able to conduct many activities with guidance remotely by expert staff


Building capacity of local partners

Building capacity of local partners was an important part of the project to enable achievement of results.


Capacity was built through online training and informal discussions.


Without capable partners, no field activities would have been implemented during the COVID-19 travel restrictions.

Enabling factors

* Capacity building of key local stakeholders included in project design

* Availability of smartphones, computers and network

* Expert trainers available and able to flexibly adapt to online training

Lesson learned

* While most stakeholders prefer in-person capacity-building events, responses to the online training was extremely positivea and could be built into future projects to reduce costs and increase flexibility of delivery options

Ecosystem-based Adaptation and Climate-Smart Agricultural Measures

The five EbA/CSA measures were the fundamental building block that ensured the project's success.


They were selected because of their familiarity to, and suitability for, local people.


The measures helped project participants adapt their farming practices to climate change while improving and diversifying their livelihoods.

Enabling factors

* Participatory intervention selection with farmers and expert staff

* Supportive local extension and rural-development agencies

* Frequent and regular support by expert staff and farmer-to-farmer approaches

Lesson learned

* Familiarity with the intervention increases the likelihood of adoption

* Farmers preferred to modify their farming systems with the enhanced knowledge from the project rather than completely change all at once


Five ecosystem-based adaptation and climate-smart agriculture (EbA/CSA) measures with 3602 households: 1) improved homegardens; 2) moden apiculture; 3) onion–bean rotation; 4) grass; 5) prawn–fish rotation. Average income from onion–bean was USD 3500/ha/yr (4–5 more than rice); apiculture: USD 1000/yr; and prawn–fish: USD 5921/ha (14 times more than rice). Benefits from grass: fodder, reduced inputs and less erosion. Further, 285 participatory 10-day weather forecasts were produced with 35 seasonal forecasts and 35 agro-advisory posters. Thirty-two Village Savings and Loans Associations (815 members) saved USD 23,173, of which USD 20,478 was loans (92 members). A total of 13 Zalo groups (500 people) were supported by 71 trainings by the Farmers Union and Extension Center with 2731 farmers, accompanied by 8 technical videos and 11 manuals, 1 portfolio of measures, 2 policy briefs, 4 newsletters, 2 brochures and many news articles,  broadcasts and blogs, with 90,000 engagements and 40,000 accesses. Four training courses for goverment staff led to a policy brief on capacity in climate-change planning and implementation and case studies on filling gaps in avoiding loss and damage. A total of 909 households  sold 527.50 t of produce, promoted by the sub-project, resulting in prices 30% higher than unsupported products. Three proposals worth USD 893,725 approved.

Sustainable Development Goals
SDG 1 – No poverty
SDG 2 – Zero hunger
SDG 3 – Good health and well-being
SDG 5 – Gender equality
SDG 6 – Clean water and sanitation
SDG 8 – Decent work and economic growth
SDG 11 – Sustainable cities and communities
SDG 12 – Responsible consumption and production
SDG 13 – Climate action
SDG 15 – Life on land
ICRAF, Le Thi Tam
Guinea grass intercropped with fruit trees
ICRAF, Le Thi Tam

Ha Tinh is one of Viet Nam's provinces most vulnerable to the impact of the climate crisis. Farmers, who are among the poorest in the country, have already been struggling with weather extremes, low productivity and uncertain incomes, forcing many off the land in search of livelihoods domestically and even internationally. Mr Nguyen Ke Hoach was aided by the sub-project to rehabilitate his abandoned land with drought-tolerant fodder grass and fruit trees, returning it to productivity and increasing resilience to climate and market shocks.


‘We abandoned this field due to hot spells and drought during the summer season but now the grass grows well even under the multiple climatic hazards that occurred during 2020–2021, such as hot spells, drought, cold spells and whirlwinds, and produces enough fodder for our five cattle’, said Nguyen Ke Hoach, a farmer in Huong Son District.

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Le Tam Thi
Alliance of Biodiversity and CIAT