Successfully conserving critical corridors and bottlenecks using the community-based management.

Forest user groups
Publicado: 04 Octubre 2021
Última edición: 04 Octubre 2021
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Since the last decade in Nepal, the landscape-based conservation approach has been adopted as an opportunity to scale up conservation initiatives. The Terai Arc Landscape Programme of Nepal is one of the examples of such approach.  The implementation has been tailored to the specific requirements of core protected areas, buffer zones, corridors, and bottleneck areas. The approach has resulted in a higher level of biodiversity conservation and management, increased number of all species of megafauna, improved livelihoods of local communities with women leadership, sustainable forest management and ultimately contributed to address climate change.  It has distributed the roles, rights and responsibilities among diverse stakeholders, and they are brought together to conserve forests and biodiversity through community-based management (CBM). Dr Ram Prasad Lamsal has contributed significantly to improving policy, practices, and governance and building innovations in CBM in the landscape.


Sur de Asia
Scale of implementation
Ecosistemas forestales
Selva baja caducifolia
Actores locales
Adaptación al cambio climático
Conectividad / conservación transfronteriza
Conocimientos tradicionales
Fragmentación del hábitat y degradación
Incorporación de la perspectiva de género
Mitigación del cambio climático
Poblaciones indígenas
Desafíos ecológicos
Lluvia errática
Calor extremo
Degradación de tierras y bosques
Pérdida de la biodiversidad
Cambio estacional
Fuegos silvestres
Especies invasoras
Cacería furtiva
Contaminación (incluida la eutrofización y la basura)
Falta de acceso a financiación a largo plazo
Falta de capacidad técnica
Falta de infraestructura
Falta de seguridad alimentaria
Desempleo / pobreza
Sustainable development goals
ODS 1 - Fin de la pobreza
ODS 5 - Igualidad de género
ODS 13 - Acción por el clima
ODS 15 - Vida de ecosistemas terrestres
Aichi targets
Meta 1: Aumento de la sensibilization sobre la biodiversidad
Meta 5: Pérdida de hábitat reducida a la mitad o reducida
Meta 7: Agricultura, acuicultura y silvicultura
Meta 9: Especies exóticas invasoras prevenidas y controladas
Meta 11: Áreas protegidas y conservadas
Meta 15: Restauración de ecosistemas y resiliencia
Meta 17: Estrategias y planes de acción para la biodiversidad
Meta 18: Conocimiento tradicional
Meta 19: Intercambio de información y conocimiento
Sendai Framework
Meta 4: Reducir los daños de desastres a la infraestructura crítica y los trastornos a los servicios básicos como las instalaciones educativas y de salud, incluyendo el desarrollo de su resiliencia para 2030.
Meta 5: Incrementar el número de países con estrategias nacionales y locales para la reducción de riesgos para el 2020.
Meta 6: Incrementar la cooperación hacia países en desarrollo a través de apoyo adecuado y sustentable a fin de complementar sus acciones
(I)NDC Submission


Terai, Nepal | Four corridors (Mohana-Laljhadi, Basanta, Khata and Barandavar), three bottleneck areas (Mahadevpuri, Lamahi and Dovan) and associated buffer zone areas of Chitwan National Park, Banke National Park and Bardia National Park.
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Population pressure on forest resources through shifting cultivation, overgrazing, commercial tree cutting, and agricultural land encroachment is leading to severe exploitation of forest resources in Nepal, with seroius ecological consequences in the form of soil erosion and landslides. Climate change along with human activities have led to deforestation, forest and habitat degradation and unsustainable logging. Major threats are grazing all year around, poaching for high value products, illegal logging and unsustainable tourism.


The beneficiaries are socially disadvantaged women, untouchables, indigenous communities, minorities, people with disabilities, marginalized groups, backward classes, youth, farmers, workers, oppressed and economically poor.

¿ Cómo interactúan los building blocks en la solución?

To ensure the success of CBM and its associated strategies,  a set of principles are considered as the building blocks. The principles cannot be thought of as independent building blocks ; they rather can be arranged in a mix and match approach: taking the most desirable option from each block to create an effective, efficient, and equitable conservation which maximises the potential benefits and minimises the risks. Effective participation is an important characteristic of effective governance, and involves identifying multiple stakeholders and incorporating them in decision-making processes. Stakeholders can start interacting with each other through formal and informal rules, institutions and processes.


The laws create rights that provide the foundation for forest institutions and processes. These institutions establish basic principles for how people interact with each other and with their resources. This includes rights to access, stakeholder management and the ability to pass these rights on to future generations.


The program has yielded the following impacts:

  • Forests protected, restored, and managed; conserved biodiversity, wildlife and habitats and wetlands; increased number of all species of megafauna, empowered communities for gender, leadership, livelihood improvement and enterprises; and addressed climate change issues.
  • Developed improved community-based model with cost effective approach and high degree of community participation and contribution, and strong partnership.
  • Hybridized traditional and scientific knowledge; and shared monitoring, evaluation and learning system.



Forest encroachment evacuated by local communities


In the Nepalese context, forest encroachment is the illegal conversion of forested land to other land uses, such as agriculture and settlement. It is one of the major drivers of deforestation and forest degradation in Nepal which is more prominent in the Terai and Siwalik regions.

Just before the local election in 2018, nearly 4000 people from outside the district have come with political motive to encroach the forest land being managed by local communities. The local communities developed the networks, communicated with law enforcement agencies and developed teams to evacuate the encroachers and protect the forest. The communities succeeded and the forest is under active management.

Contribuido por

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Ishwari Prasad Poudel Divisional Forest Office, Kapilvastu

Other contributors

Community forest user groups