Adopting mitigation measures to reduce the impact of climate risks

Publicado: 30 Noviembre 2021
Última edición: 30 Noviembre 2021

Based on the results of baseline studies that determined climatic risks, different ecosystem-based adaptation and mitigation measures were identified and individual farmers and community-based organizations were incentivized to lead the various activities through diverse training (led by World Agroforestry (ICRAF)); including:

  1. The establishment of a two-meter-wide fire belt around all preferred mother trees, large trees within a forest that act as centralized hubs, supporting communication and nutrient exchange amongst trees.
  2. Farmer-managed tree growing approach, named Zai Pits, half-moon planting pits, which farmers create in the hardpan soil using hand tools or plows and animals. These act as micro-water catchments, holding about four times the amount of water that normally runs off the land but also compost, thereby increasing production.
  3. Adding water-buffering vegetation around the runoff water collection reservoir to reduce wind flow over the reservoir and thus reduce evaporation from the system. The system also facilitates reduction in runoff and enhances groundwater recharge through infiltration.
  4. Rainwater harvesting, storage, and distribution techniques were implemented to support the restoration efforts and overcome the shortage in water resources due to extreme weather conditions and low rainfall.


Intervenciones técnicas e infraestructura
Scale of implementation
Phase of solution

Enabling factors

It is crucial to conduct baseline studies to determine the climatic risks, and then select adequate adaptation and mitigation measures, in light of local specificities. To choose the most appropriate and effective measures, access to enough knowledge from national and local sources (indigenous communities, national institutes, and ministries, local NGOs, etc) is key, and enough financial resources, human resources, and time should be allocated to the implementation of these measures.

Lessons learned

  • By applying the correct planting or restoration method, such as assisted natural regeneration and having adequate access to resources, the survival rate went from 10-48% to almost 95% after three months of planting. Now these measures are being replicated in other community-owned forests and community-protected areas (CPAs). 
  • Constraints, other than genetic and/or climatic, should be carefully explored and addressed to increase the survival rate of seedlings (e.g., bushfire, water shortage, grazing by wild and/or domestic animals including those coming through seasonal transhumance, etc)
  • In certain regions, there is only a short rainy season. Seedlings that are planted late in the rainy season can therefore struggle to survive the long season and the heat.  
  • To increase the survival of the seedlings, measures such as the establishment of a fire-belt, or the use of water-buffering vegetation, might be required.
  • The adoption of farmer-managed tree growing approaches and the establishment of rainwater harvesting structures at the project sites might be necessary for an effective large-scale restoration.

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