SeaSketch: A web-based tool for participatory marine spatial planning

Will McClintock
Publicado: 22 Enero 2021
Última edición: 22 Enero 2021
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Resumen

SeaSketch is a software service for participatory and collaborative mapping. Using simple tools, users may (1) visualize and query maps, (2) contribute knowledge and identify valued areas using map-based surveys, (3) sketch and evaluate prospective zoning scenarios and (4) share and discuss zoning plans in a map-based discussion forum. The platform has been used in many cases to develop comprehensive zoning scenarios that reflect stakeholder values in Marine Spatial Planning (MSP). The tool is currently propriety and requires a purchased license but in January 2022, a new version will be released as free and open source. 

Classifications

Región
América Central
América del Norte
Asia Central y del Norte
El Caribe
Europa Occidental y del Sur
Norte de Europa
Sudamérica
Sur de Asia
Escala de aplicación
Global
Local
Multinacional
Nacional
Subnacional
Ecosistema
Arrecife rocoso / orilla rocosa
Arrecifes coralinos
Bosques costeros
Ecosistemas de agua dulce
Ecosistemas marinos y costeros
Estuarios
Lagune
Manglares
Mar abierto
Mar abierto
Marisma salina
Montaña submarine / dorsal oceánica
Playa
Pradera marina
Río, corriente
Tema
Actores locales
Adaptación al cambio climático
Ciencia y investigación
Comunicación y divulgación
Conectividad / conservación transfronteriza
Conocimientos tradicionales
Cultura
Extracción
Islas
Manejo de cuencas
Manejo espacial de la zona marino-costera
Medios de vida sostenibles
Mitigación del cambio climático
Ordenamiento territorial terrestre
Pesca y acuicultura
Planificación de la gestión de áreas protegidas
Poblaciones indígenas
Restauracion
Salud y bienestar humano
Seguridad alimentaria
Servicios ecosistémicos
Transporte
Turismo
World Heritage
Challenges
Pérdida de la biodiversidad
Acidificación de los océanos
Aumento del nivel del mar
Erupción volcánica
Usos conflictivos / impactos acumulativos
Pérdida de ecosistemas
Cosecha insostenible, incluida la sobrepesca
Falta de capacidad técnica
Falta de conciencia del público y de los responsables de la toma de decisiones
Deficiente gobernanza y participación
Falta de seguridad alimentaria
Metas de Aichi
Meta 2: Valores de biodiversidad integrados
Meta 4: Producción y consumo sostenibles
Meta 6: Gestión sostenible de los recursos vivos acuáticos
Meta 10: Ecosistemas vulnerables al cambio
Meta 11: Las áreas protegidas
Meta 13: Protección de la diversidad genética
Meta 14: Los servicios ecosistemicos
Meta 15: Restauración de ecosistemas y resiliencia
Meta 18: Conocimiento tradicional
Meta 19: Intercambio de información y conocimiento

Ubicación

Global | United States, Canada, New Zealand, Federated States of Micronesia, Cook Islands, Ecuador, Barbuda, Montserrat, Curaçao, Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Portugal, Reunion, Micronesia, Bermuda, Indonesia

Retos

One primary challenge to marine spatial planning is maximizing participation in the planning process by providing Geographic Information Systems (GIS) tools that may be used in a variety of settings (remotely and in-person) by a variety of users (technical and non-technical). 

Beneficiarios

Planners, stakeholders and government agency representatives who are directly involved in marine spatial planning.

¿ Cómo interactúan los building blocks en la solución?

Marine Spatial Planning (MSP) processes are often helped by decision-support tools. Deciding on the tools for critical issues in MSP such as spatial data management and stakeholder engagement is key (BB1 - SeaSketch Software as a Service). Governments need a legal mandate to establish marine spatial plans (BB2 - Government Buy-In for Collaborative Planning), without which plans are unlikely to be adopted.

 

One begins with collecting the best readily available geospatial information (BB3 - Authoritative Geodata and Map Services). All of these data may be displayed as Data Layers in SeaSketch.  New data may be collected by way of Surveys (BB4 - SeaSketch Surveys to Assess Ocean Use). The results of surveys may show the distribution of activities within the ocean. These maps may be considered the “authoritative” database with which users may begin planning.

 

The primary planning tool is the “sketch”,  a prospective plan element (BB5 - Sketching and Evaluating Prospective Zones). Sketches may be analyzed to indicate if the plan meets its objectives.  The Forums offer a means by which users may share and discuss prospective zones. 

Impactos positivos

Successful planning depends on a commitment from government to maximize stakeholder involvement, including goal-setting, generating and evaluating plans, and decision-making. With this in mind, the SeaSketch platform lowers barriers to participation and provides a means by which stakeholders may concretely offer their ideas and opinions, share information and express their values about how ocean space is managed. Zoning plans that reflect these ideas, values and opinions are more likely to gain social acceptance and therefore stand a greater chance of implementation and compliance.

 

Moreover, if stakeholders are offered the opportunity use SeaSketch hands-on, they will have a better understanding of the information used in planning as well as the structure of the planning process itself. By viewing maps, sketching and evaluating plans, users gain a deeper appreciation for what is meant by “habitats” or “the distribution of fishing effort”.

 

And, finally, by using the data and tools available in SeaSketch, users have access to a common language within which they may collaborate and communicate with others. A zone that is labelled “marine protected area” or “no-go zone” has a specific meaning that is reflected in the attributes and reports associated with it. As such, stakeholders are clear about what they want (or don’t want) when they share their ideas. 

Historia

Will McClintock

SeaSketch was used in the Caribbean island of Barbuda to create a comprehensive marine spatial plan. The Barbuda Council (the island’s governing body), with invited support from the Waitt Institute, navigated complex trade-offs between spatial uses to design and legally codify zoning for their entire marine jurisdiction. After a year of intensive community engagement under this Blue Halo Initiative, regulations were adopted in August 2014 that established zones for sanctuaries, fish net prohibitions, anchoring/mooring, and shipping. Key data used included a habitat map and a heatmap of fishing value. Barbudans designed all zones, with technical support, using SeaSketch. Throughout the process, the Council incorporated input from fishers and other community members, seeking a final zoning design that would minimize negative impacts on livelihoods and earn broad community support. The final zoning plan balances economic, conservation, and cultural uses. It includes thirteen zones and meets the pre-agreed goals of protecting one-third of the waters overall and approximately one-third of each habitat type. The consultation process included seven community consultation meetings, five fisher consultation meetings, and two meetings of a stakeholder committee. The initiative is now in the implementation phase, however Hurricane Irma devastated Barbuda in September 2017, creating substantial challenges for ongoing implementation.

 

At the beginning of the Blue Halo Initiative, there was some doubt that stakeholders would be able to identify on a map where they fished – an important step that show the distribution of valued fishing areas to be avoided as no-take zones. Indeed, some who had fished around the island had never looked at a navigational map or a detailed map of the coastline. It was quite common for initiative staff and partners to sit for twenty minutes or so with individual stakeholders to look at the maps in SeaSketch and orient them to their fishing areas. In all cases, stakeholders were eventually able to orient themselves and identify the areas where they fished. In most cases, we found that facilitated discussions (e.g., interviews) were the easiest way to engage stakeholders, even those that had personal computers with Internet access. Although SeaSketch is quite easy to use, it may require 10-15 minutes of training and, more importantly, a specific motivation to use the tool in a participatory process.

Contribuido por

Will McClintock University of California Santa Barbara, National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis

Contribuído por

University of California Santa Barbara
University of California Santa Barbara