Community-based breeding programs (CBBPs)

Picture taken by Tesfaye Getachew Mengistu, ICARDA.
Publicado: 23 Febrero 2021
Última edición: 27 Febrero 2021
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Resumen

Ten years ago, Community-based breeding programs appeared as a pioneer solution for genetic improvement of sheep and goat in low input systems. They focus on training and building local capacity, leading to sustained genetic improvement of indigenous breeds. The solution has resulted in genetic gain of economically important traits, shown an increase in farmer income by 20% and helped the community triple consumption of animal source food.

Classifications

Región
Asia Central y del Norte
Sudamérica
África Occidental y Central
África Oriente y África del Sur
África del Norte
Escala de aplicación
Global
Ecosistema
Agro-ecosistema
Desierto caliente
Ecosistemas del desierto
Pasto
Tema
Actores locales
Agricultura
Ciencia y investigación
Conocimientos tradicionales
Diversidad genetica
Incorporación de la perspectiva de género
Medios de vida sostenibles
Poblaciones indígenas
Seguridad alimentaria
Challenges
Desertificación
Sequía
Lluvia errática
Calor extremo
Incremento de temperatura
Gestión ineficaz de los recursos financieros
Falta de oportunidades de ingresos alternativos
Falta de capacidad técnica
Falta de conciencia del público y de los responsables de la toma de decisiones
Deficiente vigilancia y aplicación de la ley
Falta de infraestructura
Deficiente gobernanza y participación
Desempleo / pobreza
Objectivos de Desarrollo Sostenible
ODS 1 - Fin de la pobreza
ODS 2 - Hambre cero
ODS 3 - Salud y bienestar
ODS 5 - Igualidad de género
ODS 17 - Alianzas para lograr los objetivos
Enfoques para el compromiso empresarial
Compromiso directo con asociaciones
Indirecto a través del gobierno

Ubicación

Ethiopia | Ethiopia, Sudan, Iran, Uganda, Tanzania, Liberia, Malawi, Tunisia and Burkina Faso, and Argentina, Bolivia.

Retos

CBBPs came to address the issue of growing global demand for meat, milk and other livestock products and struggling communities to increase the production of animals in Ethiopia, the lack of which is in part due to low productivity per animal and flock offtake. Indeed, Ethiopia has a large and diverse population of small ruminants, which contribute substantially to the livelihood and income of the rural poor. In the past, the government of Ethiopia had placed much emphasis on importing exotic genetics rather than focusing on local ones and crossbreeding with local stock as a strategy for genetic improvement. However, this has not led to a significant productivity improvement and the programmes have generally been unsustainable. CBBPS therefore address challenges related to SDG1 and SDG2 by their inclusion of indigenous breeds and their impressive results in measurable genetic gains and socioeconomic impact.

Beneficiarios

Small ruminant farmers in low-input systems and small ruminant value chain actors.

¿ Cómo interactúan los building blocks en la solución?

In practice, the link between training and developing local capacity and implementation of business development is permitted when CBBP’s combine the selection of breeding rams and bucks based on a careful recording of important production parameters, such as body weight at a specific age and birthing intervals, with an expert local opinion on what constitutes a good ram or buck within real-world settings, followed by its communal use for improved breeding. Farmers who participate provide their local knowledge and are organized into sheep and goat breeding associations, many of which evolve into formal cooperatives independent of ICARDA’s support.

Impactos positivos

  • High reach: More than 5000 Households in 40 villages have been directly involved and benefited from the programs.  Farmers have also created 35 formal breeders’ cooperatives, which have been able to build capital from investments.
  • Increased productivity: CBBPs increases the productivity and profitability of indigenous breeds without undermining their resilience and genetic integrity, and without expensive interventions. Benefits of CBBPs include lamb growth rate, lambing interval, and reduced mortality.
  • High market price: Higher market price compared to sheep and goats from non-members.
  • Business development: Sheep and goat farming in CBBP’s zones are a top business activity and the linchpin of many farmers’ livelihoods. In 2019, 44 youth groups with a total of 485 members (41 percent female) were trained in sheep husbandry, ration balancing and formulation, entrepreneurship and marketing.
  • Social inclusion: Contribution to social inclusion through training of  50 masters and 15 PhD students, who now advocate for the program within their universities and organisations.

Historia

"The cooperative structure will serve the community well into the future. Bonga has a very well-organized and vibrant cooperative that thinks out of the box. They have overseen a transformation from subsistence farming to a market-oriented sheep production system. They are becoming a self-sustaining private sector.” Alemayehu Haile

Contribuido por

ICARDA Solutions