Integrated livestock and wildlife disease surveillance and response supports Saiga conservation and livelihoods in Mongolia

WCS Mongolia
Publié: 21 juin 2022
Dernière modification: 08 juillet 2022
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Summary

Integrated livestock and wildlife monitoring, surveillance, and response are essential to guide the implementation of disease control measures to protect biodiversity and livelihoods. Improved wildlife surveillance and  analyses of disease outbreaks in Mongolia showed that wildlife were victims of livestock disease spillover, not the source of the outbreaks as had been previously thought. This avoided mass culling of wildlife and moved towards wildlife-friendly disease control efforts. Strategies for both livestock and wildlife are now being designed to control and eradicate Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) virus in Mongolia. The incorporation of wildlife is now recognized as essential in global PPR eradication strategies. With saiga sensitivity to disease epidemics more fully appreciated, increased trade protections through the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) were implemented, which will further help safeguard the Mongolian saiga’s survival.

Classifications

Region
Asie du Nord et Centrale
Scale of implementation
Intranational
Local
Mondial
Multinational
National
Ecosystem
Désert froid
Prairie tempérée, savane, maquis
Pâturages
Écosystème agricole
Écosystèmes de désert
Écosystémes des prairies
Theme
Accès et partage des avantages
Agriculture
Culture
Gestion des espèces
Gestion des terres
Gestion et Planification des Aires protégées et conservées
Gouvernance des Aires protégées et conservées
Moyens d'existence durables
Science et recherche
Sensibilisation et communications
Sécurité alimentaire
Species Conservation and One Health Interventions
Évaluation du statut de l'espèce
Surveillance de la santé de la faune (pour capturer la biodiversité, la santé, les maladies et la surveillance des agents pathogènes)
Vaccins
Surveillance des espèces et recherche
Planification de la conservation des espèces
Communication des risques, engagement communautaire et changement de comportement
Évaluation des risques
Enquête sur l'épidémie et accès au laboratoire
Mécanisme de coordination One Health
One Health
Santé animale
Lien entre la biodiversité et la santé
Systèmes agro-alimentaires
Bonne gouvernance des paysages
Commerce des animaux sauvages et conflits homme-animaux sauvages
Challenges
Utilisations conflictuelles / impacts cumulatifs
Gestion inefficace des ressources financières
Manque de sécurité alimentaire
Manque d'infrastructures
Manque de sensibilisation du public et des décideurs
Manque de capacités techniques
Sustainable development goals
ODD 1 - Pas de pauvreté
ODD 2 - Faim "zéro"
ODD 3 - Bonne santé et bien-être
ODD 11 - Villes et communautés durables
ODD 12 - Consommation et production responsables
ODD 15 - Vie terrestre
ODD 17 - Partenariats pour la réalisation des objectifs
Aichi targets
Objectif 1: Sensibilisation accrue de la biodiversité
Objectif 2: Valeurs de la biodiversité intégrées
Objectif 3: Attraits réformées
Objectif 4: Production et consommation durables
Objectif 7: Agriculture, aquaculture et sylviculture durable
Objectif 12: Réduction du risque d'extinction
Objectif 13: Sauvegarde de la diversité génétique
Objectif 14: Services des écosystèmes
Objectif 17: Stratégies de la biodiversité et des plans d'action
Objectif 19: Partage de l'information et de la connaissance
Objectif 20: Mobiliser toutes les ressources disponibles
Sendai Framework
2: Réduire nettement, d’ici à 2030, le nombre de personnes touchées par des catastrophes.
3: Réduire, d’ici à 2030, les pertes économiques directes dues aux catastrophes en proportion du produit intérieur brut (PIB).
6: Améliorer nettement, d’ici à 2030, la coopération internationale avec les pays en développement en leur fournissant un appui approprié et continu afin de compléter l’action qu’ils mènent à l’échelle nationale pour mettre en œuvre le présent Cadre.
7: Améliorer nettement, d’ici à 2030, l’accès des populations aux dispositifs d’alerte rapide multirisque et aux informations et évaluations relatives aux risques de catastrophe.

Emplacement

Mongolia

Challenges

This solution addresses challenges to biodiversity conservation of saiga and other wild ungulates, as well as the wild carnivores that prey and rely on these animals as their food source. Improved surveillance and understanding of disease epidemiology leads to more appropriate interventions for disease control which addresses challenges to livestock health, with knock-on benefits to the livelihoods and economic security of the herders whose animals share the steppe environment with wild ungulates.

Beneficiaries

  • Herding communities who rely on livestock for their economic stability and livelihoods
  • Wild ungulates
  • Wild carnivores who rely on wild ungulates for food
  • All who rely on the integrity of the Mongolian steppe ecosystem

Comment les blocs constitutifs interagissent-ils entre eux dans la solution?

Developing multi-sectoral communication and collaboration networks and capacity building across these sectors from local to national levels are essential components for successful wildlife surveillance for One Health intelligence and implementation of effective solutions in coordination with local communities. 

Impacts

In the past, the role of wildlife in livestock disease outbreaks was misunderstood. During Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) outbreaks in 2000, Mongolian gazelle were viewed as reservoirs of the disease and subjected to mass culling. Temporal and spatial analyses supported by international wildlife health experts showed that gazelle were in fact the victims of spillover of the virus from livestock improving veterinary officials' understanding of the epidemiology of FMD. Mass destruction of wildlife was recognized as an ineffective control measure, and conservation-friendly management actions adopted. In 2016, PPR was diagnosed in domestic livestock, spread to wild ungulates, and killed over 80% of Mongolian Saiga. Wildlife surveillance identified that wildlife were victims and not the original source of infection. Instead of culling wildlife, expert advisors, environmental and veterinary sectors coordinated to vaccinate livestock and minimize spread of PPR, saving the critically endangered Mongolian Saiga population, which subsequently rebounded to 8,500 individuals.

The realization of the importance of wildlife and their ecological role in preserving the steppes is a great change in the veterinary sector. Partners are now working to design effective control strategies for both livestock and wildlife to eradicate PPR in Mongolia, and to incorporate wildlife into global PPR eradication strategies.

Contribué par

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Lucy Keatts WCS