Results

Under the application of the trap for intermittent harvest, the best results were achieved with the following combination of variables: maize bran (supplementary feed) x maize bran (trap bait) x O. Shiranus (species) x 2 fish/m2 (stocking density).

The total yields under this combination were 25 percent higher than in the control group with single batch harvest. A higher stocking density (3 fish/ m2) led to a slightly higher total harvest in the control group, but to a lower net profit. The use of pellets reinforced both effects and was the least economical.

Results from the on-farm trials (see Figure 1) have demonstrated the functionality and the excellent catch effect of the traps. Over the three-month on-farm trial period, the trap was used 2 to 3 times a week and a total of 27 times. On average, around 120 small fish – an equivalent of 820 grams – were caught each intermittent harvest. With the use of the trap, all households reported that they now eat fish twice a week. Before that, fish consumption was between one and four times a month.

The benefits:

  • Reducing the competition for oxygen and food among the fish in the pond and thus measurable increase in yield.
  • Improved household consumption of small, nutritious fish and better cash flow.

Success factors:

  • Traps are easy and inexpensive to build (USD 3).
  • Traps are easy to use, also for women.
  • Directly tangible added value thanks to easy and regular access to fish.

 

Examples from the field

Overall, the user experience of households engaged in the on-farm trials was very positive:

As a family we are now able to eat fish twice and sometimes even three times a week as compared to the previous months without the technology when we ate fish only once per month.” (Doud Milambe)

Catching fish is so simple using the fish trap and even women and children can use it.” (Jacqueline Jarasi)

It is fast and effective compared with the hook and line method which I used to catch fish for home consumption that could take three to four hours but to catch only three fish and thus not enough for my household size.” (Hassan Jarasi)

Results

Under the application of the trap for intermittent harvest, the best results were achieved with the following combination of variables: maize bran (supplementary feed) x maize bran (trap bait) x O. Shiranus (species) x 2 fish/m2 (stocking density).

The total yields under this combination were 25 percent higher than in the control group with single batch harvest. A higher stocking density (3 fish/ m2) led to a slightly higher total harvest in the control group, but to a lower net profit. The use of pellets reinforced both effects and was the least economical.

Results from the on-farm trials (see Figure 1) have demonstrated the functionality and the excellent catch effect of the traps. Over the three-month on-farm trial period, the trap was used 2 to 3 times a week and a total of 27 times. On average, around 120 small fish – an equivalent of 820 grams – were caught each intermittent harvest. With the use of the trap, all households reported that they now eat fish twice a week. Before that, fish consumption was between one and four times a month.

The benefits:

Reducing the competition for oxygen and food among the fish in the pond and thus measurable increase in yield.

Improved household consumption of small, nutritious fish and better cash flow.

Success factors:

Traps are easy and inexpensive to build (USD 3).

Traps are easy to use, also for women.

Directly tangible added value thanks to easy and regular access to fish.

 

Examples from the field

Overall, the user experience of households engaged in the on-farm trials was very positive: “As a family we are now able to eat fish twice and sometimes even three times a week as compared to the previous months without the technology when we ate fish only once per month.” (Doud Milambe)

 

Catching fish is so simple using the fish trap and even women and children can use it.” (Jacqueline Jarasi)

 

It is fast and effective compared with the hook and line method which I used to catch fish for home consumption that could take three to four hours but to catch only three fish and thus not enough for my household size.” (Hassan Jarasi)

Local Community engagement

The local community was consulted into the spatial planning process. The process involved holding big workshops for local community and inviting several interest groups, especially those of livestock owners, tourism workers, and hunting enthusiasts. The purpose was 2 main things; 1) to collect local data and knowledge into the planning product and more importantly to build a sense of ownership and belonging of the local community to the potential planning product.

Data from various sources were collectively integrated and put into a spatial prioritization and optimization algorithm based on targets stemming out from the Primary Management objectives of the Reser. This Algorithm is known as MARXAN working under a process termed as simulated annealing.  

The resulting planning product is then shared back to the local community and other stakeholders including governmental and non governmental entities to collect thier feedback to further tweak the product for maximum sustainability.

Haenggung Village Cooperative Association

The local residents who were previously excluded from the various cultural tourism activities and festivals centering on the World Heritage property started to independently host village activities and built up their capacities for delivering and managing events. 

The initial residents group started to participate in the operations of the Suwon Heritage Night Walks in 2017 as traffic control staff. As the number of festivals that were hosted to celebrate Suwon Hwaseong as World Heritage increased, such as the Hwaseong by Night, World Heritage Festival, and Media Art Shows, the number of jobs available for the residents also increased. 

The Haenggung Village Cooperative Association was established on 31 May 2021 and it consists of 46 members. The main line of work is creating content and activities for visitors. 
The association is composed of 4 sub-groups each named “jigi”, which in the Korean language means friends: 

  • Haenggungjigi, who focuses on providing event support, information, sanitation and the operation of activities; 
  • Donghaengjigi, a group that creates the content and stories of the village tours; 
  • Surajigi that promotes and shares research and education on food; 
  • Cheongnyeonjigi, the group that monitors and conducts evaluations of activities. 

It was key to create jobs that could best optimize the capacities of the local residents. The division of work between members of Haenggungjigi, Donghaengjigi, Surajigi and Cheongnyeonjigi was fundamental to organize the work. 

Lastly, all residents participating in these activities had to complete a mandatory training.

Through the cooperative association that based itself on the experience of creating village activities, diverse jobs that could be directly linked to the capacities of the local residents were set up. These included positions such as event operation staff, information officers, cooks, and conducting baseline research. This made a big transition as the residents who were previously neither part of nor benefitting from the festivals could now directly be involved and be paid for their contributions. 

The mandatory training for the residents who wanted to participate increased the overall capacities of the local residents and boosted their understanding of World Heritage, local values and  the importance of local participation. 

Partnerships

Cross-cutting partnerships were the basis for the glocal achievement. Initially, in partnership with the World Bank, partner that supported the development of the documents and agreed with IUCN that as the WB was phasing out IUCN could/should continue with the process as a reliable partner - this included co-funding one staff member for 6 months so the staff member could represent both entities until document development closure. Then by partnering with WWF and WCS, for their direct contribution with biodiversity data for the PNDT and the MSP - with a focus on WCS and the National Biodiversity database that was fully integrated in the above referred documents. Partnerships extended to all planning and conservation partners by maintaining a continuous information sharing system to ensure streamlined knowledge, support, understanding and engagement.

The principal partnership to be refer reports again to the Government. Good governance and policy making in a country is the Government's role and mandate. For policies to be improved or adopt it requires Government decision. And it requires also a transparent, reliable and efficient dialogue and capacities from the contributing partner. And this is where IUCN delivered at its best and expanded this engagement to its members.

 

IUCN´s membership role, IUCN´s dialogue and skills competencies, trusted partner to the Government.

Understanding of the subject and availability of skilled staff, membership and partners regularly informed and the capacity to build a common voice, a common force, capacity and openness for joint and complimentary planning with the network. Avoid single voice and multiple positioning.

Data collection using racing yachts for onboard sampling and deployment of drifter buoys

Beyond facilitating access to hard-to-reach locations, sailboats also provide useful modes of transport for deploying scientific instrumentation. The boats can carry scientific equipment, both for deployment in the ocean, but also for continual measurement by sensors that are permanently onboard. The race boats’ speed means that data from different locations can be captured across short timespans, something which is not achievable by most research vessels. Yachts can also be used to pilot and test new research technology and techniques, such as technology that allows results to be shared in real-time, and the OceanPack – a device which records essential ocean data from aboard the yachts. 

 

In a racing context, carrying devices that take meteorological measurements is not only beneficial for science partners, but also for the race participants themselves, as it helps to inform and improve weather forecasts that will impact their own decision-making and performances throughout the race. 

 

Using racing yachts for data collection paves the way for the installation and deployment of measuring devices on other vessels such as fishing or commercial boats, as well as other sailing boats. 

 

 

  • Sensors and scientific instrumentation can be installed on sailing boats.
  • The high speeds that are achievable by sailing yachts enable the collection of data across short time spans.
  • Boats can reach specific locations to deploy drifter buoys or Argo floats.

Scientific devices were originally designed for use on large research or commercial vessels. This presented some technical challenges regarding their use and installation aboard racing yachts which falls beyond the scope of their intended applications. As the boats are racing yachts the devices needed to be resilient and also light.

Challenges included operating sampling devices in an environment where there is fluctuating power supply, constant exposure to corrosive humidity, and where operators (i.e. teams and athletes) face immense physical (and psychological) stresses. This meant the devices needed to be user-friendly and simple to operate so that individuals with little specialised training could use them effectively and efficiently under stressful and pressurised conditions. The Ocean Race is collaborating with manufacturers to advance the technology and enhance its reliability for future uses.

Bamboo Training and Capacity Building

Building Block 5 focuses on the provision of various bamboo trainings by Forests4Future to support different aspects of the bamboo value chain in their intervention zone. These trainings are essential as enabling factors for the success and sustainability of the bamboo-related activities undertaken by the project. Forests4Future provides both financial and technical assistance in organizing and implementing these trainings. Since the start of the project, Forests4Future has conducted multiple bamboo trainings tailored to specific needs, for example:

  1. Bamboo propagation: Trainings on bamboo propagation are provided to tree nurseries to ensure the successful propagation of bamboo seedlings for plantation establishment.
  2. Bamboo plantation/stand management and harvesting: These trainings cover various aspects of bamboo plantation management, including planting techniques, maintenance practices, pest and disease management, and sustainable harvesting methods.
  3. Bamboo preservation treatment: This training is essential for bamboo processing units to learn proper techniques for treating bamboo with chemical, hot water and cold water treatments and harvesting time consideration to reduce insect susceptibility of bamboo culm.           
    (...)       

By offering these diverse trainings, Forests4Future aims to build the capacity and skills of local stakeholders involved in the bamboo value chain. This contributes to improved productivity, product quality, and overall sustainability of bamboo-related activities. Moreover, these trainings empower local communities to actively participate in and benefit from the economic and environmental benefits of bamboo.

  1. Training Resources: Access to qualified trainers, materials, and facilities is crucial for effective bamboo trainings.
  2. Community Engagement: Involvement of local stakeholders enhances learning outcomes and ownership of skills.
  3. Continuous Learning: Follow-up sessions and peer networks reinforce training impact.
  4. Local Adaptation: Customizing content to suit local needs improves training effectiveness.
  5. Monitoring: Regular evaluation and participant feedback inform program improvements.
  1. Tailored Training Programs: Designing training programs that are tailored to the specific needs and skill levels of participants enhances learning outcomes and practical application of knowledge.
  2. Hands-on Training: Incorporating hands-on, practical exercises and demonstrations in training sessions improves engagement and retention of learning.
  3. Community Empowerment: Empowering local communities to take ownership of training initiatives and become trainers themselves fosters sustainability and scalability of capacity-building efforts.
  4. Partnerships and Collaboration: Collaborating with local institutions, organizations, and experts in bamboo-related fields enhances the quality and reach of training programs.
  5. Feedback Mechanisms: Establishing effective feedback mechanisms, such as surveys, focus groups, and evaluation forms, enables continuous improvement of training content, delivery methods, and overall impact.
Bamboo Plantation Establishment and Restoration

Forests4Future's Building Block 2 focuses on supporting communities to establish bamboo plantations in degraded communal land and erosion gullies. The seedlings for the plantations are sourced from local nurseries, as detailed in Building Block 1. As the bamboo reaches a certain growth stage, it can be harvested and sold to local bamboo processing units (PU), which then transform the raw material into valuable products, as discussed in Building Block 4. This approach not only promotes sustainable income generation for the community but also contributes to the restoration of degraded land. Bamboo's soil-protecting capacity plays a crucial role in long-term restoration efforts, particularly in areas vulnerable to erosion or already highly degraded like the Lake Abaya and Chamo catchment areas. Erosion and sedimentation pose significant threats to local farmers and fishers, making the restoration efforts with bamboo essential for protecting soils and ensuring future income opportunities for the communities.

  1. Community Engagement: Raising awareness and local support for bamboo plantations.
  2. Technical Assistance: Essential expertise in bamboo cultivation and management.
  3. Market Access: Building strong value chains for steady income from bamboo products.
  4. Policy Support: Favorable policies for sustainable forestry and income generation.
  1. Site Selection: Careful consideration of site conditions, such as soil type, water availability, and slope, is crucial for successful bamboo plantation establishment.
  2. Species Selection: Choosing appropriate bamboo species that are well-suited to local climatic and soil conditions is important for achieving optimal growth and productivity.
  3. Training and Capacity Building: Continuous training and capacity-building programs for farmers and plantation workers are essential for enhancing skills and knowledge in bamboo cultivation and management.
  4. Land Use Rights: Securing land use rights is essential for sustainability and effective resource management in the restored area.
  5. Monitoring and Evaluation: Regular monitoring and evaluation of plantation performance, including growth rates, yield, and environmental impacts, are necessary for making informed management decisions and optimizing outcomes (as part of the post-planting management activities).
Developing the official documents for institutionalization process.

The institutionalization process of the WIOMN required the registration and the strengthening of the Network. In addition, the process required the development of a number of documents such as the administration manuals and operation procedures. In doing so, WWF recruited the experts to support the WIOMN throughout the completion of the process. 

The regular communication between 

Alignment capacity building and policy influencing to get best practice mangrove restoration embedded

Based on the success of CBEMR training in Lamu, area KFS officers identified the need to spread this knowledge to the KFS managerial team and senior policy-level managers from KFS headquarters, county forest conservators from the 5 coastal counties of Kwale, Kilifi, Mombasa, Tana River, and Lamu and their forest managers, and lecturers from Kenya school of forestry. 

We organised a CBEMR managerial training, drawing in KFS managers, all coastal county department of Environment directors, and representatives from universities, the Western Indian Ocean Mangrove Network and local media. 

As a result, the team agreed to incorporate the CBEMR approach in the proposed Kenya mangrove restoration technical order. Furthermore, it was agreed to develop a national mangrove restoration platform to standardise mangrove management and conservation, especially for restoration projects. 

Kenya is also developing national mangrove restoration guidelines, supported by Wetlands International and WWF Kenya. It builds on the Global Best Practice Guidelines on Mangrove Restoration developed by the Global Mangrove Alliance amongst others, led by WI and CI in collaboration with dozens of scientists. 

Policy Formulation: National-level forest managers should be engaged in local/county based restoration initiatives to aid in the development of mangrove forest policies. For instance, based on the success of the first CBEMR training in Lamu, area KFS officers identified the need to spread this knowledge to the KFS managerial team and senior policy-level managers from KFS headquarters, county forest conservators from the 5 coastal counties of Kwale, Kilifi, Mombasa, Tana River, and Lamu and their forest managers, and lecturers from Kenya school of forestry. 

A CBEMR managerial training was therefore undertaken in September 2023, drawing in KFS managers, all coastal county department of Environment directors, and representatives from universities, the Western Indian Ocean Mangrove Network and local media. The team agreed to incorporate the CBEMR approach in the proposed Kenya mangrove restoration technical order and develop a national mangrove restoration platform to standardise mangrove management and conservation, especially for restoration projects.