Once we have established a Community Wildfire Management Team we review their local wildfire issues and identify options for change using a range of participatory methods. Our aim is to build an understanding of how and why fires start within each community and the positive and negative impacts of fires started for different reasons, and in different areas. We recommend interviewing various people including members of the Community Wildfire Management Team, other village leaders and elders, women, youth, and local authorities.

When we understand the causes and impact of wildfire we then conduct community mapping to spatially determine: 

  • where fires are most likely to be lit and why;
  • potential firebreaks or control lines within the landscape;
  • location of water sources;
  • location of access roads and tracks;
  • priority areas for protection (e.g. high value forest and restoration areas); and
  • the ability of local community members to control fires both through pre-suppression and suppression measures.

These fire maps helped each community implement measures to prevent, detect, and effectively respond to wildfire.

Building Block 1 - Community and Government Engagement needs to be completed before undertaking the review process. It is important to gain as wide a range of perspectives on wildfire as possible when reviewing each community. All communities will have different drivers, responses, and attitudes to wildfire. Understanding why fires occur, particularly if they are lit to benefit some people, is crucial in managing wildfire’s damaging impacts.

We identified seven causes of wildfire on the Tonle Sap: 

  1. wildlife hunting (turtles and honey collection); 
  2. clearing vegetation for fishing gear; 
  3. clearing vegetation to facilitate access;
  4. clearing land for crops (rice and vegetables); 
  5. clearing and managing land for grazing; 
  6. cooking fires; and
  7. cigarettes.

All were caused by people and the first six were deliberate. Hot and dry weather is a significant driver of wildfire, wind is a major factor in fire spreading. And in communities without fire suppression equipment rainfall is the main factor in extinguishing fires. We recommend printing and prominently displaying each community’s annual CBFiM plan so that it serves as a constant reminder of wildfire management and planned activities.

Data collection, reflexion, and adaptation for sustainability with relevant partners

The data collection and ongoing monitoring of the project's achievements were carried out by a dedicated Monitoring, Evaluation, and Learning (MEL) team. This team, external to MUVA, conducted in-depth interviews, focus group discussions, and periodic analysis of each action plan at baseline, midline, and final stages. This systematic approach allowed for comprehensive data collection, culminating in a reflection meeting at the end of the initiative. Facilitated by a senior facilitator, results were presented to the MUVA, Aquapesca, and Pro Azul teams. The meeting provided an opportunity for teams to extract key learnings and formulate a path for scaling and sustaining the initiative.

  • Budget for an external MEL team allocated for the project
  • Aquapesca availability to engage in the MEL data collection process
  • As the project is highly innovative and tailored, some of the success indicators are developed during the definition of action plans. Consequently, the MEL team's involvement in mentoring sessions allowed for the creation of indicators aligned with actions and the periodic monitoring of results. This approach promoted motivation and agility in the execution of plans by observing the progress of the initiative.
Developing the Regional Ocean Governance Strategy through a co-creation process

The ROGS Support Team supported a diverse WIO ROGS Task Force, involving state and non-state representatives from various sectors and organisations. This inclusive forum facilitated stakeholder dialogue and collaboration, with members providing inputs directly to the ROGS and expanding regional contributions by inviting stakeholders from their networks. The Task Force, along with key stakeholders, contributed strategic and technical insights to the ROGS through Technical Dialogues and regional events.

The Collective Leadership Institute (CLI) supported the Task Force through in-person workshops and online sessions  to enhance collective leadership and collaboration. An experienced ocean governance advisor, Mr. Kieran Kelleher, played a key role in formulating strategy questions and compiling ROGS content.

The inclusive and participatory approach aimed to foster ownership, improving the quality, feasibility and credibility of the ROGS. If adopted at the next Nairobi Convention Conference of Parties, this ownership is expected to boost the strategy's implementation.


  • Clear process and goal outlined in the process architecture for drafting the ROGS together

  • Participant interest and openness for individual and collective contribution

  • Capacity development and process stewardship prioritized by CLI, emphasizing authentic participation, trust-building, and co-creation

  • Technical dialogues led by the Task Force, engaging sector-specific stakeholders and experts for a shared understanding and optimal policy recommendations

  • Weekly online meetings of the ROGS Support Team, organized by CLI to ensure a high-quality process

  • Need to assign clear roles within the process including someone who drives the process forwards according to set timelines

  • Both process leadership and technical leadership

  • Consideration of financing and resourcing as an integral part of the ROGS

Political will and mandate to develop a Regional Ocean Governance Strategy

Political leaders of the WIO countries have recognised that cooperation among regional organisations and across sectors, including greater engagement of the private sector and civil society, is required to address growing regional challenges such as marine and coastal conservation, marine plastic pollution, climate change, response to disasters like oil spills or cyclones etc.

A series of successive policy processes, including the 2015 call by African Union (AU) for the development of an African Regional Ocean Governance Strategy through the Cairo Declaration of the African Ministerial Conference on the Environment (AMCEN), the 2017 Libreville Declaration of AMCEN, and a baseline study on WIO Ocean Governance, led to the mandate for the development of WIO’s Regional Ocean Governance Strategy at the 2021 Conference of Parties to the Nairobi Convention (NC) (Decision CP.10/5). In response, the Nairobi Convention Secretariat convened a Support Team to help guide a participatory development of the WIO ROGS by working with representatives of the NC Contracting Parties, the AU, the WIO’s Regional Economic Communities (RECs), the Indian Ocean Commission, private sector and civil society actors in a Regional Ocean Governance Strategy Task Force.

  • Having a high-level political mandate is an important success factor for engaging in a multi-stakeholder, participatory process for regional strategy development

  • Selection  of Task Force members by countries, the AU and the RECS, and thus country participation in the creation of the strategy

  • Financial support from regionally endorsed projects and partners

  • Coordinating and covening ability of the NCS

  • Long process leading to the adoption of the decision in 2021 and protracted preparation period due to the wide scope and diversity of sectors and themes

  • Coordination of such a regional and political process requires continuous capacities on all sides and a strong will to participate actively

  • Continuity and a long-term process for developing and implementing strategy needs to exist before the start of the process

  • Ability to frame questions and issues in a form leading to consensus through technical dialogues

  • Effective feedback to the TF on consensus positions

Policy Dialogues or Workshops

A dialogue or workshop with governmental stakeholders to present case studies or solutions that could be incorporated into national policies.

An ongoing collaboration with the national government and close communication about various project updates that are beneficial for policy.

Conducting panel discussions or FGD has been shown to facilitate dialogues between the public and private sectors. Such discussions are important for information accessibility to the private sector, while also influencing policies that are not resistant to project goals.


For instance, the carbon market workshop was significant in elaborating the Ministry of Environment and Forestry (MoEF) plan on the Indonesian Carbon Market. Elaborating projects such as the biogas initiative early on is necessary to ensure smooth implementation once the policies are ready.

3. Action planning based on the outcome of the SAGE assessment

Development of an action plan after the SAGE process was very crucial as it ensured that recommendations provided in the SAGE process were addressed in a systematic and targeted manner whereby key stakeholders who participated in the SAGE process were also engaged in the action planning process hence, they drew the roadmap for implementation of those recommendations.


In addition, recommendations which came out of the SAGE process informed Honeyguide on areas of priority in designing WMA governance capacity building programs.


The overall successful preparation of an action plan after the SAGE process required the following;

  • A clear understanding of the assessment findings and recommendations provided
  • Clear goals and objectives to be achieved
  • Strong leadership and coordination with key stakeholders
  • Adequate resources
  • Willingness and commitment from all key stakeholders.

Overall success of the action planning phase based on the outcome of SAGE process provided an opportunity to learn important lessons related to;

  • Keen selection and active engagement of key stakeholders in the planning process
  • Thorough understanding of the local context
  • Effective prioritization and goal setting by all key stakeholders
  • Inclusiveness of all key stakeholders in adequate resource mobilization

These lessons learned can be used as a good source of information to future development planning and programming organs of the WMA and can help to ensure that development interventions are effective, inclusive, and sustainable over the long term.

Decision-making based on Community Engagement

CHICOP closely collaborates with representatives from neighboring communities, facilitated through regular village meetings and the establishment of an MPA advisory committee. The park actively engages with the local communities to gather their feedback and incorporate it into the planning and decision-making processes for adaptive management planning and implementation. A recurring 10-year management plan provides the bedrock for the Chumbe project (now in its 3rd iteration). Feedback to planning is collected through in-person interviews and meetings, ensuring open and transparent communication channels with the local communities. Moreover, by providing extensive employment opportunities for the local communities (both on the island, and through supporting a range of off-island enterprises that contribute to island operations, such as sustainable agricultural products, organic soap production and the like), Chumbe fosters mutual benefits, sustainable livelihoods, and ensures strong representation of local community considerations in all aspects of management.

  • Collecting opinions through regular meetings with the villagers and engaging in discussion with local authorities, such as the Ministry of Blue Economy and Fisheries and the Department of Forestry, is a key factor for success in ensuring the protection of the island’s biodiversity.
  • The privately managed governance model adopted by the island brought significant advantages in management without generating conflicts of interest among different stakeholders or changes in priorities by the government.

The successful conservation of Chumbe Island would not be possible without the active involvement, engagement, and support of local communities. The direct contribution and willingness to participate are critical factors for success. It is important to foster an open and inclusive environment where different voices can be heard, and mutual understanding can be built. By actively engaging with and listening to the local communities, a strong sense of ownership and collaboration can be fostered, leading to more effective and equitable conservation efforts

Environment Education based on an Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) approach

Education played a crucial role in the successful protection of the marine protected area (MPA). Prior to its designation as an MPA (which is 100% no-take zone), the park was a free fishing zone. To increase awareness about the closure of the site in the 1990s, and help local people understand the importance of conservation and its benefits, CHICOP implemented an extensive outreach program and established an Environmental Education (EE) program by providing hands-on environmental education experiences for local school children, teachers, community members and government officials, that has continued to date.

  • Income from eco-tourism has been a primary funding source for the EE program
  • Educational programs have allowed local communities, students and international students to gain practical experiences
  • The Head Ranger, a former Zanzibari fisher, has been leading the education program for fishing communities
  • The active participation of Conservation and Education team in EE program
  • Practical insights and knowledge in nature conservation are shared, providing fishing communities with firsthand learning opportunities

Education is vital for long-lasting conservation efforts. Changing people's mindset is crucial, and continuous environmental education is necessary. A one-day workshop, however, is not sufficient, and environmental education should be consistently provided. Even with ongoing education, it does not guarantee a 100% change in behaviour, as there may be still fishers engaging in illegal fishing activities. In the case of Chumbe, there is a mechanism in place to address such illegal activities through collaboration with government authorities and law enforcement agencies.


It is recommended to not only maintain regular education programs but also establish proper mechanisms to manage potential poaching activities. Additionally, to sustain these activities, it is advisable to explore alternative financing options rather than relying solely on external financial resources, considering the possibility of unforeseen situations such as the recurrence of a pandemic like Covid-19. While BIOPAMA Rapid Response Grant supported CHICOP, long-term sustainability requires careful consideration of uncertainties.


Partnership Collaboration, Action Planning and monitoring progress:

A stakeholders workshop was conducted to share assessment results, address questions from the 2nd workshop, and discuss an action plan for mitigating identified negative impacts. Actions, activities, and timelines were discussed for each impact.


Based on the collected data, TT successfully engaged donors in funding projects aligned with reducing the negative impacts.


To mitigate the Human-Wildlife Conflict (HWC) negative impact, TT has constructed a 33km Elephant exclusion Fence and 8 additional 10% fences,  reducing HWC by over 80%.


To address the lack of water, TT provided 110 dam liners, each with a capacity of 56,000 L, resulting in the harvesting of over 6 million litres of surface run-off water.


In support of schools, TT is offering scholarships to 9 students and has constructed and equipped a Science and computer laboratory in a local secondary school.


To overcome information barriers, TT established a BULK SMS platform and grievances log to facilitate communication on key issues, ongoing projects, and address grievances between TT and communities.


TT is currently developing a SAPA review scheduled for July 2023 to assess the impact and change in perceptions resulting from the implemented interventions in communities.





The Tsavo Trust management was very supportive throughout the entire process.

Tsavo Trust contracted experienced consultants who conducted the SAPA process professionally within the set timelines 

The good relationship between Tsavo Trust, Communities and Key Stakeholders made the process a success

Timely availing of project funds from BIOPAMA

During the SAPA process final phase, TT learnt that bringing a wider network of stakeholders had varying benefits. Ensuring there was representation from County Government, like-minded NGOs, Kenya Wildlife Services and Community helped reduce the pressures on TT to deliver and address all the negative impacts identified during the evaluation. All partners who were part of the SAPA process now have a clear picture of the work that TT does and the needs of the Kamungi members. 

PaRx Program: Support for conservation objectives through experiencing nature

Research shows that people who are more connected to nature do more to protect it and engage in more pro-environmental behaviours in general. Through time spent in nature, people develop a sense of attachment to natural and cultural areas and increase their support and interest in the conservation of these protected and conserved areas.


  • Research demonstrating the links between human health, nature connectedness and pro-environmental behaviours; time spent in nature, and protecting nature are solutions to improve health outcomes for both people and ecosystems.
  • Existing resources highlighting the connection between health and well being and time spent in nature
  • Demonstrating the connection between nature prescriptions and a longer-term shift to prioritize nature protection is a complex research question that will take time and more resources. Longer term data sets and new research endeavours are required to confirm the link of nature use through the program to improve support of nature protection over time.